TERMINOLOGY & DICTIONARY OF PR MEASUREMENT & RESEARCH

Analytics and insights are today’s hot business topic. In my 20 years’ experience working in the communications measurement sector, I have never known so much interest in the topic. This demand has created a rush of new and old vendors offering many differing tools, solutions and services to monitor and evaluate communications. According to Ken Burbary’s wiki, there are well over 220 companies offering these types of services and this number is growing daily.

This high number of potential suppliers with differing levels of experience can cause problems. One of these is the lack of consistency in results when measuring the same campaign between one provider and another. One of the key problems here is that frequently the wrong terms and definitions are being used by the providers. For example, ‘OTS’, ‘readership’, ‘circulation’, and ‘audience reach’ all mean different things but in some cases are used by different suppliers interchangeably. There are many other examples of these types of problems – ‘hits’ and ‘page views’ anyone?

As an industry, if we are to solve this issue, it is imperative that we all say what we mean, and mean what we say. As the industry looks to set standards and demonstrate consistent, credible approaches to measurement, we must first be aligned behind consistent and correct terminology.

Our friends at the IPR have produced a great resource to help the industry do exactly that. The ‘Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement & Research’ painstakingly explains each term in common use and provides a clear definition too. Edited by Don Stacks and Shannon Bowen, ‘The Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement & Research’ is available for download here.

GUIDELINES FOR SETTING MEASURABLE PR OBJECTIVES

The IPR, the USA based Institute for Public Relations (as distinct from the UK’s PR trade association the CIPR), has updated its excellent White Paper “Guidelines for Setting Measurable Public Relations Objectives”.

Setting measurable objectives at the outset of any PR activity is of fundamental importance. Communications objectives need to support the goals of the organisation. They should be SMART (specific, measurable, achievable,  relevant and time-bound). They need to be set out in advance of any work with a clear indication of what success would look like. Communications objectives need to move beyond counting outputs to linking the communications activity to changing attitudes and behaviours and ultimately organisational impact.

The IPR’s excellent White Paper provides lots more information on this crucially important  subject. Authored by the IPR’s Measurement Commission and spearheaded by Forrest W. Anderson Planning & Evaluation Consultant,Linda Hadley, Senior Vice President, Research, Porter Novelli, David Rockland Partner & CEO, Ketchum Global Research & Analytics and Mark Weiner, CEO of PRIME Research Americas.

The Paper, ‘Guidelines for Setting Measurable Public Relations Objectives” can be downloaded here.

UŽITOČNÉ ZDROJE PRE PRÁCU S INTEGROVANÝM HODNOTIACIM RÁMCOM

KATEGÓRIAORGANIZÁCIAZAMERANIEODKAZ
Tradičné médiaBARB – Broadcast Audience Research BoarZbiera dáta o využití jednotlivých komunikačných kanálov a programov a analyzuje počet prezretí príspevkov na týždennej, mesačnej a štvrťročnej báze.barb.co.uk
JICREG – Joint Industry Committee for Regional Media ResearchSprávy z regionálnej tlače a webových stránok – výstupy zahŕňajú priemernú čítanosť, demografické údaje vrátane veku, pohlavia a socioekonomického postavenia.jiab.jicreg.co.uk
MediatelMediatel zhromažďuje informácie zo sveta médií, ponúka rôzne postrehy a novinky z trhu, konferencie a pod.mediatel.co.uk/
Newspaper SocietyPoskytuje obmedzené informácie o čítanosti a informačnom dosahu.newsmediauk.org
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience ResearchRAJAR sleduje na štvrťročnej báze počet poslucháčov lokálnych rádio staníc, dosah konkrétneho média a priemernú dobu počúvanosti. Reporty obsahujú tiež grafické porovnania využitia tradičných vysielačov digitálnych platforiem.rajar.co.uk
Sociálne a digitálne médiaAlexaZdroj prevádzkových údajov z webových stránok.alexa.com
BacktweetsVyhľadávanie odkazov na Twitter-i.backtweets.com
BitlyUžitočný nástroj pre skracovanie URL adries, ktorý poskytuje aj súvisiace analytické údaje ako je história kliknutí a shares cez Facebook alebo Twitter.bitly.com
BufferBuffer uľahčuje spravovanie sociálnych sietí, a tým šetrí čas, ktorý strávite ich správou.buffer.com
Facebook InsightsAnalýza interakcií vášho FB účtufacebook.com/help/search/?q=insights
Google AlertsSlužba Google Alerts vám na základe stanovených kritérií zasiela upozornenia na novospustené weby, spravodajské blogy, a pod.google.co.uk/alerts
Google AnalyticsAnalýza webových stránok.google.co.uk/analytics
Google News SearchPrehľad hlavných udalostí a spravodajských služieb na jednom mieste.news.google.co.uk
Google TrendsSleduje trendy vo vyhľadávaní na Google.google.co.uk/trends
HootsuiteNástroj pre plánovanie a spravovanie účtov na sociálnych sieťach.hootsuite.com
KredPlatforma pre meranie a hodnotenie vplyvu.home.kred
LinkedIn AnalyticsAnalýza interakcií s individuálnymi užívateľmi.linkedin.com/help
Social BakersDáta a analytické informácie zo sociálnych sietí.socialbakers.com
SocialmentionPrieskum a analýzy sociálnych sietí v reálnom čase.socialmention.com
ThunderclapThunderclap je platforma, ktorá zhromažďuje jednotlivcov a spoločnosti s cieľom šíriť nejakú spoločnú myšlienku.thunderclap.it
TraackrNástroj pre interakciu a udržovanie komunikácie s influencermi.traackr.com
TweetdeckPomáha správne využívať a zapojiť sa do diania na Twitter-i.tweetdeck.twitter.com
TweriodTweriod radí, kedy je správny čas na postovanie tweet-ov.tweriod.com
Twitter AnalyticsAnalýza interakcií s vaším účtom.analytics.twitter.com
Platené média
IAB – Internet Advertising BureauNa webe IAB nájdete dáta a infografiky z rôznych odvetví vrátane glosára slangových výrazov používaných v prieskumoch.iabuk.net
IPA – Institute of Practitioners in AdvertisingNa stránkach inštitútu IPA nájdete tipy a osvedčené praktiky pre reklamné kampane.ipa.co.uk
NetvibesDashboard riešení pre reklamné, sociálne, mediálne a PR agentúrynetvibes.com
Výskum trhuEventbriteNástroj, ktorý umožňuje propagovať udalosti, vytvárať k nim pozvánky a registrácie, sledovať návštevnosť alebo získavať spätnú väzbu od účastníkov.eventbrite.co.uk
Mail Chimp
Nástroj pre spravovanie a sledovanie e-mailovej komunikácie.mailchimp.com
Market Research Society
Market Research Society (MRS) je významná výskumná asociácia. Sprostredkováva užitočné dáta pre pracovníkov vo verejnom a súkromnom sektore, ktorí sa nejakým spôsobom podieľajú na rozhodovaní a tvorbe stratégií.mrs.org.uk
PolldaddyNástroj pre online prieskum.polldaddy.com
Smart SurveyNástroj pre online prieskum.smartsurvey.co.uk
Survey MonkeyNástroj pre online prieskum.surveymonkey.co.uk
Business insights a vizualizácia dátMicrosoft BIMicrosoft Power BI vytvára z dát bohaté vizuály.powerbi.microsoft.com
TableauNástroj pre vizualizáciu dát z rôznych zdrojov.tableau.com
PiktochartTvorba infografíkpiktochart.com
PreziPrezentačný software.prezi.com
RôzneAMECWebové stránky AMEC obsahujú množstvo zdrojov súvisiacich s analýzou a meraním, a to vrátane tipov a osvedčených praktík, prípadových štúdií alebo zoznamov poskytovateľov rôznych meracích nástrojov a služieb.amecorg.com/resource-centre
CIPRInštitút CIPR ponúka množstvo meracích nástrojov a zdrojov, ako je napr. Social Media Measurement Guide a Guide to Social Media Monitoring.cipr.co.uk
data.gov.ukDáta a reporty z verejného sektora. Funkcia ‘Publication Type’ v ľavej časti stránky slúži k upresneniu vyhľadávania v rôznych štatistikách, analýzach a prieskumoch.gov.uk
ICCOInternational Communications Consultancy Organisation (ICCO) je celosvetová organizácia združujúca konzultingové spoločnosti z oblasti public relations.iccopr.com
IPRInstitute for Public Relations je nezisková organizácia, ktorá sa špecializuje na výskum v oblasti public relations.instituteforpr.org
Neighbourhood StatisticsTáto stránka vám bude veľmi nápomocná, pokiaľ pracujete na projekte s regionálnym zameraním.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk
OFCOM – the communications regulatorStránky OFCOM obsahujú štatistiky o vlastníctve a využívaní televíznych a rozhlasových prijímačov a pevných/mobilných telefónov.ofcom.org
ONS – Office for National StatisticsONS poskytuje množstvo dát (vrátane dát zo Sčítania ľudu, domov a bytov z roku 2011), ktoré môžu byť roztriedené abecedne alebo podľa témy. Ponúkajú tiež službu Nomis – bezplatný prístup k oficiálnym, detailným a najaktuálnejším štatistikám z britského pracovného trhu. ons.gov.uk/ons
PRCAAsociácia PRCA sa zaoberá všetkými aspektmi public relations aj internou komunikáciou v organizáciách. Pomáha tímom i jednotlivcom zlepšovať kvalitu výstupov, ktoré odporúčajú klientom.prca.org.uk

PRÍPADOVÉ ŠTÚDIE

FRAMEWORK CASE STUDIES:

THE STROKE ASSOCIATIONSTIAHNUŤ

NHS BLOOD & TRANSPLANTSTIAHNUŤ

STONER SLOTHSTIAHNUŤ

WHO REALLY WON CHRISTMAS?STIAHNUŤ

THE SOCIAL PR VIRTUOSOSTIAHNUŤ

DOPLŇUJÚCE ŠTÚDIE/BIBLIOGRAFIE

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AKADEMICKÉ ČLÁNKY A ODBORNÉ REFERENCIE

Baskin, O., Hahn, J., Seaman, S., & Reines, D. (2010). Perceived effectiveness and implementation of public relations measurement and evaluation tools among European providers and consumers of PR services. Public Relations Review, 36, 105–111.

Distaso, M., McCorkindale, T., & Wright, D. (2011). How public relations executives perceive and measure the impact of social media in their organizations. Public Relations Review, 37(3), 325–328.

Available at:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251582796_How_public_relations_executives_perceive_and_measure_the_impact_of_social_media_in_their_organizations

Donsbach, W., & Brade, A. (2011). Nothing is as practical as a good theory: What communication research can offer to the practice of political communication. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16(4), 508–522,

Fairchild, M. (2006). Evaluating public relations: a best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. Journal of Communication Management, 10(1), 113–115. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/13632540210807125

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Lindenman, W. (1993). An ‘effectiveness yardstick’ to measure public relations success. Public Relations Quarterly, 38(1), 7–9.

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ONLINE ČLÁNKY A ODBORNÉ TEXTY

Carroll, T., & Stacks, D. (2004). Bibliography of public relations measurement. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/PRM_Bibliography.pdf

Childers, L., & Grunig, J. (1999). Guidelines for measuring relationship in public relations. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/measuring-relationships/

Eisenmann, M., O’Neil, J., & Geddes, D. (2015). An examination of the validity, reliability and best practice related to the standards for traditional media. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 2(1), 1–29. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/examination-validity-reliability-best-practices-related-standards-traditional-media/

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Henningsen, A., Traverse Healy, K., Gregory, A. Johannsen, A., Allison, R., Bozeat, N., & Domaradzki, L. (2014, August 1). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Huhn, J., Sass, J., & Storck, C. (2011). Communication controlling: How to maximize and demonstrate the value creation through communication. Berlin, Germany: German Public Relations Association (DPRG). Available athttp://www.quadriga.eu/_files/downloads/2011-11-16_position-paper_com-controlling.pdf

Jeffrey, A. (2015). How to measure social media: Linking PR activities to target audience effects. The Measurement Standard, January 10. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/2015/01/measure-social-media-choosing-tools-benchmarking

Likely, F. (2012). Principles for the use of return on investment (ROI), Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) financial metrics in a public relations/communication (PR/C) department. Paper presented to the 15th International Public Relations Research Conference, 8–10 March, Miami, FL. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/15th-IPRRC-Proceedings1.pdf

Likely, F., Rockland, D., & Weiner, M. (2006). Perspectives on the ROI of media relations publicity efforts. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/research_single/perspectives_on_the_roi/

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Using research to measure the effectiveness of PR programs. Quirk’s Marketing Research. Retrieved from http://www.quirks.com/articles/a1997/19970204.aspx

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Guidelines and standards for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. PR Pundit. Available at http://prpundit.com/pdf/prTools/MeasuringandEvaluatingPREffectiveness.pdf

Lindenmann, W. (2001). Research doesn’t have to put you in the poorhouse. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/research-savings

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Smith, B. (2008). Representing PR in the marketing mix: A study on public relations variables in marketing mix modelling. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/BG_SmithKetchum.pdf

Solis, B. (2010). ROI: How to measure return on investment in social media. @Brian Solis, 22 February. Available at http://www.briansolis.com/2010/02/roi-how-to-measure-return-on-investment-in-social-media

DPRG/ICV framework for communication controlling. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/positions/framework.html

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Fairchild, M. (2001). The IPR toolkit: Planning, research and evaluation for public relations success (2nd ed.). London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

Fairchild, F., & O’Conner, N. (1999). The public relations research and evaluation toolkit: How to measure the effectiveness of PR. London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

GCS (Government Communication Service). (2015). Evaluation Framework. Cabinet Office, Whitehall, London, UK. Available at https://gcs.civilservice.gov.uk/guidance/evaluation/tools-and-resources

IPRA (International Public Relations Association). (1994). Public relations evaluation: Professional accountability, Gold Paper No. 11, November. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

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Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf . (Revised version of original work 1997)

Lindenmann, W. (2006). Public Relations Research for Planning and Evaluation. Resource booklet. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2006_Planning_Eval.pdf

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Principles on best practice in research, measurement, and evaluation in public relations. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6726

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Media and social media content analysis guidelines. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6727

Public Relations Society of America. (2014). Measurement resources. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/businesscase/measurementresources

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (Eds.). (2013). Dictionary of public relations measurement and research. Gainesville FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/dictionary-of-public-relations-measurement-and-research/ 

VÝSKUMNÉ REPORTY

Macnamara, J. (2014). The development of international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations and corporate communication: A review. Sydney, NSW: Australian Centre for Public Communication, University of Technology Sydney. Available at https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/acpc-pr-measurement-and-evaluation-review.pdf

Wright, D., Gaunt, R., Leggetter, B., Daniels, M., & Zerfass, A. (2009). Global survey of communications measurement 2009 – final report. London, UK: Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Global-Survey-Communications_Measurement-20091.pdf

Zerfass, A., Verčič, D., Verhoeven, P., Moreno, A., & Tench, R. (2015). European communication monitor 2015. Brussels, Belgium: European Association for Communication Directors (EACD) and European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) in association with Helios Media, Berlin. Available at http://www.zerfass.de/ECM-WEBSITE/media/ECM2015-Results-ChartVersion.pdf

ĎALŠIA LITERATÚRA O MERANÍ PR A KOMUNIKÁCIE

Geddes, D., Grunig, J., Likely, F., Lindenmann, W., Macleod, S., Macnamara, J. Mathes, R., Paine, K., Rockland, D., Stacks, D., & Watson, T. (2010). Thought leaders in PR measurement. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/resources/interviews/thought-leaders.html 

Institute for Public Relations Measurement Commission. (2015). Research and conversations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/center/ipr-measurement-center/

Melcrum. (2015). Measurement and evaluation. Web site resources for internal communication. Available at https://www.melcrum.com/internal-communication-measurement-evaluation

Paine Publishing. (n.d.). K. Paine (Publisher). Available at http://painepublishing.com/

Public Relations Society of America and American Statistical Association. (2011). Best Practices Guide for Use of Statistics in Public Relations. Available at http://amecorg.com/white-papers-and-reports/

Salience Insight and News International. (n.d.). B. Paarlberg (Ed.), The Measurement Standard. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/

ZDROJE K MERANIU KOMUNIKÁCIE V INÝCH ODVETVIACH

Behavioural Economics / Behavioural Insights:

Behavioural Insights. (2015). [Web site]. London, UK. Available at http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk

 Psychology Today. (2015). [Web site]. Available at https://www.psychologytoday.com/topics/behavioral-economics

Samson, A., (Ed.). (2014). The behavioral economics guide 2014. Available at http://www.behavioraleconomics.com/BEGuide2014.pdf

Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

KOMUNIKÁCIA A PROPAGÁCIA V ZDRAVOTNÍCTVE:

Bauman, A., & Nutbeam, D. (2014). Evaluation in a nutshell: A practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

Hornik, R. (Ed.). (2002). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kreps, G. (2014). Evaluating health communication programs to enhance health care and health promotion. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 19(12), 1449–1459.

O’Connor-Fleming, M., Parker, E., Higgins, H., & Gould, T. (2006). A framework for evaluating health promotion programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 17(1), 61–66. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/9440/1/9440.pdf

Rice, R., & Atkin, C. (Eds.). (2013). Public communication campaigns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shiavo, R. (2014). Planning, implementing, and evaluating a health communication intervention. In Health communication: From theory to practice (2nd ed., Part 3). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

PROGRAMOVÁ TEÓRIA A TEÓRIA ZMENY:

Anderson, A. (2005). The community builder’s approach to theory of change: A practical guide to theory and development. New York, NY: The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change.

Chen, H. (1990). Theory Driven Evaluations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Clark, H., & Taplin, D. (2012). Theory of change basics: A primer on theory of change. New York, NY: Actknowledge.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Lipsey, M., & Freeman, H. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wholey, J. (1987). Evaluability assessment: Developing program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 33, 77–92.

Program Evaluation: (See also ‘Program Logic Models’)

Barrett, F. (2013). Program evaluation: A step-by-step guide. Urbana, IL: Sunnycrest.

Boulmetis, J., & Dutwin, P. (2005). The ABCs of evaluation: Timeless techniques for program and project managers. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Freeman, H., & Lipsey, M. (2004). Evaluation. A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, C. (1972). Evaluative research: Methods of assessing program effectiveness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wholey, J. (1983). Evaluation and effective public management. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Wholey J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Yarbrough, B., Lyn, M., Shulha, H., Rodney K., & Caruthers, A. (2011). The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation Users (3rd ed.). Sage.

LOGICKÉ PROGRAMOVÉ MODELY:

Bennett, C. (1976). Analyzing impacts of extension programs, ESC-575.Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture Extension Service.

Fournier, D. (1995). Establishing evaluation conclusions: A distinction between general and working logic. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 68, 15–32.

Henert, E., & Taylor-Power, E. (2008). Developing a logic model: Teaching and training guide. Available at http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/pdf/lmguidecomplete.pdf

Julian, D. (1997). The utilization of the logic model as a system level planning and evaluation device. Evaluation and Program Planning, 20(3), 251–257.

Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: Author. Available at http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/pdf/eval-guides/logic-model-development-guide.pdf

Knowlton, L. & Phillips, C. (2013). The logic model guidebook: Better strategies for great results (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLaughlin, J., & Jordan, J. (1999). Logic models: a tool for telling your program’s performance story. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 65–72.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box.

Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

PCI (Practical Concepts, Inc.) (1979). The logical framework. A manager’s guide to a scientific approach to design & evaluation. Washington, DC. Available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnabn963.pdf

Rush, B., & Ogbourne A. (1991). Program logic models: Expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 6(2), 95–106.

VÝKONNOSTNÝ MANAŽMENT:

Better Evaluation. (2015). An international collaboration to improve evaluation practice. Website resources. Available at http://betterevaluation.org/

Boardman, E., Greenberg, D., Vining, A., & Weimer, D. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis concepts and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2014). How CSIRO ensures it delivers impact. Sydney, NSW: Author. Available at http://www.csiro.au/en/About/Strategy-structure/Our-impact-framework

International Integrated Reporting Council. (2013). International Integrated Reporting Framework. London, UK. Available at http://www.theiirc.org/international-ir-framework

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992, January-February). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71–79.

Layard, R., & Glaister, S. (1994). Cost-benefit analysis (2nd ed). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Levin, H., & McEwan, P. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love, A. (1991). Internal evaluation: Building organizations from within. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mishan, E., & Quah, E. (2007). Cost-benefit analysis (5th ed.). Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Walsh, C. (2008). Key management ratios (4th ed.). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.

Marketing:

Content Marketing Framework: Measurement. (n.d.). Content Marketing Institute. Available at http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/measurement/

Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P., & Reibstein, D. (2010). Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Nudge Marketing:

See ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

PSYCHOLÓGIA/SOCIÁLNA PSYCHOLÓGIA:

McGuire, W. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 136-314). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

McGuire, W. J. (2001). Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. In R. Rice & C. Atkin (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (3rd ed., pp. 22–48). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

See also ‘Engagement’ and ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Engagement:

Macey, W., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.

Meyer, J., & Smith, C. (2000). HRM practices and organisational commitment: A test of a mediation model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Services, 17, 319–331.

 Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. Available http://www.psychology.uh.edu/faculty/Eisenberger/files/04_Affective_Commitment_to_the_Organization.pdf

VŠEOBECNÉ ZDROJE:

American Evaluation Society – www.eval.org

Australasian Evaluation Society – www.aes.asn.au

Harvard Family Research Project, The Evaluation Exchange – www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/eval.html

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. In Research methods knowledge base. Available at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/evaluation.php 

United Kingdom Evaluation Society – http://www.evaluation.org.uk/

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