公共关系评估和研究的术语和词典

分析和洞察是如今热门的业务话题。在我20年的传播效果评估领域的工作经验中,这个话题从来没有引起这么大的兴趣。这种需求引发了新老供应商纷纷提供许多不同的工具、解决方案和服务来监控和评估传播效果。根据Ken Burbary的维基百科中显示,有超过220家公司提供这些类型的服务,而且这个数字每天都在增长。

众多具有不同经验水平的潜在供应商可能会导致若干问题。其中之一是评估相同活动时,不同的供应商之间得出的结论缺乏一致性。这里的一个关键问题是供应商经常使用错误的术语和定义。 例如,“能见几率(OTS)”,“读者数”,“发行量”和“受众群”都意味着不同的东西,但在某些情况下,不同的供应商在互换使用。这些类型的问题还有很多其他例子,例如:“网页点击数”和“网页访问量”,等等。

作为一个行业,如果我们要解决这个问题,我们必须确保我们表达出来的意思与我们想要表达的意思是一致的。行业需要制定标准并展现一致可信的评估方法,因此我们必须首先在术语的一致性和准确性上达成共识。

知识产权方面的人士想出了很好的办法来帮助行业做到这一点。《公共关系评估与研究辞典》煞费苦心地解释了每个常用术语,并提供了清晰的定义。 由Don Stacks和Shannon Bowen编辑的《公共关系评估与研究辞典》可从这里下载。

如何确立可衡量的公共关系目标

关于知识产权,美国公共关系研究所(不同于英国公关行业协会CIPR)更新了白皮书《如何设定可衡量的公共关系目标》。

在任何公关活动开始时设定可衡量的目标都是至关重要的。传播目标需要支持组织的目标。它们应该符合SMART原则(具体的,可衡量的,可实现的,相关的和有时限的)。目标需要在开始一切工作之前提前制定,并且明确判断是否成功的标准是什么。传播目标需要超越单纯地计算结果,而是要将传播活动与态度和行为的转变联系起来,并最终同给组织带来的影响联系起来。

关于这个至关重要的课题,知识产权白皮书提供了更多信息。这个白皮书由知识产权评估委员会负责,带头人有策划与评估顾问弗雷斯特W.安德森(Forrest W. Anderson)、波特-诺韦利( Porter Novelli)公司研究部高级副总裁琳达・ 哈德利(Linda Hadley)、凯旋公关公司(Ketchum)全球研究中心合伙人兼首席执行官大卫・罗克兰(David Rockland)和普莱姆(PRIME)研究中心首席执行官马克・韦纳(Mark Weiner)。

《如何设定可衡量的公共关系目标》一文可以在这里下载。

使用综合框架可能会用到的资源

类别机构数据类型链接
传统媒体BARB – Broadcast Audience Research Boar提供每周、每月和每季度的观看数据。包括频道、节目和观看方面的数据。barb.co.uk
JICREG – Joint Industry Committee for Regional Media Research分区域为地方媒体提供报纸和网站报告。报告涵盖平均每期读者数量和包括年龄,性别和社会经济等级在内的人口统计数据。jiab.jicreg.co.uk
Mediatel据、规划工具、市场洞察力、新闻和会议的行业平台。mediatel.co.uk/
Newspaper Society能提供有限的读者数量和覆盖范围。newsmediauk.org
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience Research提供国家和地方广播电台的季度收听数据,包括覆盖率以及每个听众的平均收听小时数。包括通过收音机和数字平台收听的信息图表。nrs.co.uk
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience Research提供国家和地方广播电台的季度收听数据,包括覆盖率以及每个听众的平均收听小时数。包括通过收音机和数字平台收听的信息图表。rajar.co.uk
Social / digital mediaAlexa网站流量数据来源alexa.com
Backtweets在Twitter上搜索链接backtweets.com
Bitly这是一个提供网址缩写的工具,可以提供相关的分析,例如点击历史,并通过Facebook和Twitter分享。bitly.com
Buffer帮助您提高流量,增加参与度并节省社交媒体上的时间buffer.com
Facebook Insights针对您的帐户的互动情况进行分析facebook.com/help/search/?q=insights
Google Alerts根据搜索条件,定期推送新网站、新闻博客和研究内容google.co.uk/alerts
Google Analytics网站分析google.co.uk/analytics
Google News Search许多新闻服务的标题汇总和搜索引擎news.google.co.uk
Google Trends了解人们在谷歌上搜索的趋势google.co.uk/trends
Hootsuite社交媒体规划与管理工具hootsuite.com
Kred影响力分数和平台home.kred
LinkedIn Analytics与个人帐户互动的分析linkedin.com/help
Social Bakers来自社交媒体的数据分析socialbakers.com
Socialmention实时社交媒体研究与分析socialmention.com
ThunderclapThunderclap是一个“喧嚣的”平台,让个人和公司把人们聚集在一起传播信息。thunderclap.it
Traackr意见领袖识别和管理平台traackr.com
Tweetdeck推特监测和参与度工具tweetdeck.twitter.com
TweriodTweriod给你最好的推文tweriod.com
Twitter Analytics与您帐户互动的分析analytics.twitter.com
付费媒体
IAB – Internet Advertising BureauIAB网站在资源部分包括一个术语说明,并以特定领域的数据和图表为重点iabuk.net
IPA – Institute of Practitioners in AdvertisingIPA网站包括评估广告宣传的最佳实践指南ipa.co.uk
Netvibes为广告、社交、媒体和公关公司提供图表解决方案netvibes.com
Market researchEventbrite推广、邀请管理和活动注册的工具,能够监控当天的回复和登录情况。eventbrite.co.uk
Mail Chimp
创建、发送和跟踪电子邮件流量的工具。mailchimp.com
Market Research Society
市场研究学会(MRS)是世界领先的研究协会,为需要使用数据的人们生成并解读证据数据,为商业策略和公共政策的相关决策提供依据。mrs.org.uk
Polldaddy在线调查工具polldaddy.com
Smart Survey在线调查工具smartsurvey.co.uk
Survey Monkey在线调查工具surveymonkey.co.uk
Business insights and data visualisationMicrosoft BIMicrosoft Power BI将数据转换为丰富的可视化效果powerbi.microsoft.com
Tableau不同来源的数据的可视化工具tableau.com
Piktochart制作图表piktochart.com
Prezi演示软件
prezi.com
MiscellaneousAMEC 用于评估和分析资源的网站,包括评估供应商列表,最佳实践和案例研究。amecorg.com/resource-centre
CIPRCIPR有许多资源,包括《社交媒体评估指南》和《社交媒体监测指南》。cipr.co.uk
data.gov.uk政府数据和报告。 通过使用页面左侧的菜单- “出版类型”提供研究分析和统计选项,来缩小搜索范围 。gov.uk
ICCO国际传播咨询协会(ICCO)代表了全球公共关系咨询机构的声音。iccopr.com
IPR公共关系研究所是一个致力于公共关系研究的非营利性基金会。instituteforpr.org
Neighbourhood Statistics如果您正在开展更多本地或区域性项目,那么本网站提供了大量信息。neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk
OFCOM – the communications regulatorOFCOM网站包括电视、数字广播和座机/手机的所有权和使用数据。ofcom.org
ONS – Office for National Statistics丰富的数据(包括2011年人口普查数据),可以按主题或字母顺序浏览,而不需要事先知道要查找何种调查数据。 Nomis是由国家统计局ONS提供的服务,可以从官方来源免费获得英国最为详细和最新的劳动力市场统计数据。ons.gov.uk/ons
PRCAPRCA促进公共关系和内部沟通工作的各个方面,帮助团队和个人实现其向客户和组织提供的价值最大化prca.org.uk

案例研究

框架案例研究

THE STROKE ASSOCIATION下载(链接)

NHS BLOOD & TRANSPLANT下载(链接)

STONER SLOTH下载(链接)

WHO REALLY WON CHRISTMAS?下载(链接)

THE SOCIAL PR VIRTUOSO下载(链接)

延伸阅读/ 参考文献

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Zerfass, A., van Ruler, B., & Sriramesh, K. (Eds.). (2008). Public Relations Research: European and International Perspectives and Innovations. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften (Springer Science + Business Media).

学术文章和学术会议论文

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Distaso, M., McCorkindale, T., & Wright, D. (2011). How public relations executives perceive and measure the impact of social media in their organizations. Public Relations Review, 37(3), 325–328.

Available at:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251582796_How_public_relations_executives_perceive_and_measure_the_impact_of_social_media_in_their_organizations

Donsbach, W., & Brade, A. (2011). Nothing is as practical as a good theory: What communication research can offer to the practice of political communication. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16(4), 508–522,

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在线文章和专业文献

Carroll, T., & Stacks, D. (2004). Bibliography of public relations measurement. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/PRM_Bibliography.pdf

Childers, L., & Grunig, J. (1999). Guidelines for measuring relationship in public relations. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/measuring-relationships/

Eisenmann, M., O’Neil, J., & Geddes, D. (2015). An examination of the validity, reliability and best practice related to the standards for traditional media. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 2(1), 1–29. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/examination-validity-reliability-best-practices-related-standards-traditional-media/

European Commission. (2014, August). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Henningsen, A., Traverse Healy, K., Gregory, A. Johannsen, A., Allison, R., Bozeat, N., & Domaradzki, L. (2014, August 1). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Huhn, J., Sass, J., & Storck, C. (2011). Communication controlling: How to maximize and demonstrate the value creation through communication. Berlin, Germany: German Public Relations Association (DPRG). Available athttp://www.quadriga.eu/_files/downloads/2011-11-16_position-paper_com-controlling.pdf

Jeffrey, A. (2015). How to measure social media: Linking PR activities to target audience effects. The Measurement Standard, January 10. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/2015/01/measure-social-media-choosing-tools-benchmarking

Likely, F. (2012). Principles for the use of return on investment (ROI), Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) financial metrics in a public relations/communication (PR/C) department. Paper presented to the 15th International Public Relations Research Conference, 8–10 March, Miami, FL. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/15th-IPRRC-Proceedings1.pdf

Likely, F., Rockland, D., & Weiner, M. (2006). Perspectives on the ROI of media relations publicity efforts. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/research_single/perspectives_on_the_roi/

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Lindenmann, W. (1997). Guidelines and standards for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. PR Pundit. Available at http://prpundit.com/pdf/prTools/MeasuringandEvaluatingPREffectiveness.pdf

Lindenmann, W. (2001). Research doesn’t have to put you in the poorhouse. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/research-savings

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainsville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf (Original work published 1997)

Macnamara, J. (2014). Breaking the PR measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Paper presented to the AMEC Summit on Measurement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Available at http://amecorg.com/downloads/amsterdam2014/Breaking-the-PR-Measurement-Deadlock-A-New-Approach-and-Model-Jim-Macnamara.pdf

McCorkindale, T., DiStaso, M. (2014). The state of social media research: Where are we now, where we were and what it means for public relations. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 1(1), 1–17. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/state-social-media-research-now-means-public-relations

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Smith, B. (2008). Representing PR in the marketing mix: A study on public relations variables in marketing mix modelling. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/BG_SmithKetchum.pdf

Solis, B. (2010). ROI: How to measure return on investment in social media. @Brian Solis, 22 February. Available at http://www.briansolis.com/2010/02/roi-how-to-measure-return-on-investment-in-social-media

DPRG/ICV framework for communication controlling. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/positions/framework.html

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Fairchild, M. (2001). The IPR toolkit: Planning, research and evaluation for public relations success (2nd ed.). London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

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GCS (Government Communication Service). (2015). Evaluation Framework. Cabinet Office, Whitehall, London, UK. Available at https://gcs.civilservice.gov.uk/guidance/evaluation/tools-and-resources

IPRA (International Public Relations Association). (1994). Public relations evaluation: Professional accountability, Gold Paper No. 11, November. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

Lindenman, W. (1997). Guidelines for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf . (Revised version of original work 1997)

Lindenmann, W. (2006). Public Relations Research for Planning and Evaluation. Resource booklet. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2006_Planning_Eval.pdf

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Principles on best practice in research, measurement, and evaluation in public relations. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6726

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Media and social media content analysis guidelines. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6727

Public Relations Society of America. (2014). Measurement resources. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/businesscase/measurementresources

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (Eds.). (2013). Dictionary of public relations measurement and research. Gainesville FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/dictionary-of-public-relations-measurement-and-research/ 

RESEARCH REPORTS

Macnamara, J. (2014). The development of international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations and corporate communication: A review. Sydney, NSW: Australian Centre for Public Communication, University of Technology Sydney. Available at https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/acpc-pr-measurement-and-evaluation-review.pdf

Wright, D., Gaunt, R., Leggetter, B., Daniels, M., & Zerfass, A. (2009). Global survey of communications measurement 2009 – final report. London, UK: Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Global-Survey-Communications_Measurement-20091.pdf

Zerfass, A., Verčič, D., Verhoeven, P., Moreno, A., & Tench, R. (2015). European communication monitor 2015. Brussels, Belgium: European Association for Communication Directors (EACD) and European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) in association with Helios Media, Berlin. Available at http://www.zerfass.de/ECM-WEBSITE/media/ECM2015-Results-ChartVersion.pdf

其他公关和传播评估的资源

Geddes, D., Grunig, J., Likely, F., Lindenmann, W., Macleod, S., Macnamara, J. Mathes, R., Paine, K., Rockland, D., Stacks, D., & Watson, T. (2010). Thought leaders in PR measurement. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/resources/interviews/thought-leaders.html 

Institute for Public Relations Measurement Commission. (2015). Research and conversations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/center/ipr-measurement-center/

Melcrum. (2015). Measurement and evaluation. Web site resources for internal communication. Available at https://www.melcrum.com/internal-communication-measurement-evaluation

Paine Publishing. (n.d.). K. Paine (Publisher). Available at http://painepublishing.com/

Public Relations Society of America and American Statistical Association. (2011). Best Practices Guide for Use of Statistics in Public Relations. Available at http://amecorg.com/white-papers-and-reports/

Salience Insight and News International. (n.d.). B. Paarlberg (Ed.), The Measurement Standard. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/

其他学科的评估文献

行为经济学/行为学研究:

Behavioural Insights. (2015). [Web site]. London, UK. Available at http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk

 Psychology Today. (2015). [Web site]. Available at https://www.psychologytoday.com/topics/behavioral-economics

Samson, A., (Ed.). (2014). The behavioral economics guide 2014. Available at http://www.behavioraleconomics.com/BEGuide2014.pdf

Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

健康传播/健康促进:

Bauman, A., & Nutbeam, D. (2014). Evaluation in a nutshell: A practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

Hornik, R. (Ed.). (2002). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kreps, G. (2014). Evaluating health communication programs to enhance health care and health promotion. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 19(12), 1449–1459.

O’Connor-Fleming, M., Parker, E., Higgins, H., & Gould, T. (2006). A framework for evaluating health promotion programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 17(1), 61–66. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/9440/1/9440.pdf

Rice, R., & Atkin, C. (Eds.). (2013). Public communication campaigns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shiavo, R. (2014). Planning, implementing, and evaluating a health communication intervention. In Health communication: From theory to practice (2nd ed., Part 3). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

程序论与变化论

Anderson, A. (2005). The community builder’s approach to theory of change: A practical guide to theory and development. New York, NY: The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change.

Chen, H. (1990). Theory Driven Evaluations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Clark, H., & Taplin, D. (2012). Theory of change basics: A primer on theory of change. New York, NY: Actknowledge.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Lipsey, M., & Freeman, H. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wholey, J. (1987). Evaluability assessment: Developing program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 33, 77–92.

Program Evaluation: (See also ‘Program Logic Models’)

Barrett, F. (2013). Program evaluation: A step-by-step guide. Urbana, IL: Sunnycrest.

Boulmetis, J., & Dutwin, P. (2005). The ABCs of evaluation: Timeless techniques for program and project managers. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Freeman, H., & Lipsey, M. (2004). Evaluation. A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, C. (1972). Evaluative research: Methods of assessing program effectiveness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wholey, J. (1983). Evaluation and effective public management. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Wholey J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Yarbrough, B., Lyn, M., Shulha, H., Rodney K., & Caruthers, A. (2011). The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation Users (3rd ed.). Sage.

程序逻辑模型:

Bennett, C. (1976). Analyzing impacts of extension programs, ESC-575.Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture Extension Service.

Fournier, D. (1995). Establishing evaluation conclusions: A distinction between general and working logic. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 68, 15–32.

Henert, E., & Taylor-Power, E. (2008). Developing a logic model: Teaching and training guide. Available at http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/pdf/lmguidecomplete.pdf

Julian, D. (1997). The utilization of the logic model as a system level planning and evaluation device. Evaluation and Program Planning, 20(3), 251–257.

Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: Author. Available at http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/pdf/eval-guides/logic-model-development-guide.pdf

Knowlton, L. & Phillips, C. (2013). The logic model guidebook: Better strategies for great results (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLaughlin, J., & Jordan, J. (1999). Logic models: a tool for telling your program’s performance story. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 65–72.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box.

Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

PCI (Practical Concepts, Inc.) (1979). The logical framework. A manager’s guide to a scientific approach to design & evaluation. Washington, DC. Available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnabn963.pdf

Rush, B., & Ogbourne A. (1991). Program logic models: Expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 6(2), 95–106.

绩效管理:

Better Evaluation. (2015). An international collaboration to improve evaluation practice. Website resources. Available at http://betterevaluation.org/

Boardman, E., Greenberg, D., Vining, A., & Weimer, D. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis concepts and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2014). How CSIRO ensures it delivers impact. Sydney, NSW: Author. Available at http://www.csiro.au/en/About/Strategy-structure/Our-impact-framework

International Integrated Reporting Council. (2013). International Integrated Reporting Framework. London, UK. Available at http://www.theiirc.org/international-ir-framework

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992, January-February). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71–79.

Layard, R., & Glaister, S. (1994). Cost-benefit analysis (2nd ed). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Levin, H., & McEwan, P. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love, A. (1991). Internal evaluation: Building organizations from within. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mishan, E., & Quah, E. (2007). Cost-benefit analysis (5th ed.). Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Walsh, C. (2008). Key management ratios (4th ed.). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.

营销:

Content Marketing Framework: Measurement. (n.d.). Content Marketing Institute. Available at http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/measurement/

Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P., & Reibstein, D. (2010). Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

鼓励型市场营销:

参见“行为经济学/研究”

心理学/社会心理学:

McGuire, W. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 136-314). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

McGuire, W. J. (2001). Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. In R. Rice & C. Atkin (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (3rd ed., pp. 22–48). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

See also ‘Engagement’ and ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

参与度

Macey, W., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.

Meyer, J., & Smith, C. (2000). HRM practices and organisational commitment: A test of a mediation model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Services, 17, 319–331.

 Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. Available http://www.psychology.uh.edu/faculty/Eisenberger/files/04_Affective_Commitment_to_the_Organization.pdf

通用评估资源

美国评估协会 – www.eval.org

澳大利亚评估协会 – www.aes.asn.au

哈佛家庭研究项目,评估交流 – www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/eval.html

Trochim, W.(2006)。 评估研究。 研究方法知识库http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/evaluation.php 

英国评估协会 – http://www.evaluation.org.uk/

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