Analytics and insights are today’s hot business topic. In my 20 years’ experience working in the communications measurement sector, I have never known so much interest in the topic. This demand has created a rush of new and old vendors offering many differing tools, solutions and services to monitor and evaluate communications. According to Ken Burbary’s wiki, there are well over 220 companies offering these types of services and this number is growing daily.

This high number of potential suppliers with differing levels of experience can cause problems. One of these is the lack of consistency in results when measuring the same campaign between one provider and another. One of the key problems here is that frequently the wrong terms and definitions are being used by the providers. For example, ‘OTS’, ‘readership’, ‘circulation’, and ‘audience reach’ all mean different things but in some cases are used by different suppliers interchangeably. There are many other examples of these types of problems – ‘hits’ and ‘page views’ anyone?

As an industry, if we are to solve this issue, it is imperative that we all say what we mean, and mean what we say. As the industry looks to set standards and demonstrate consistent, credible approaches to measurement, we must first be aligned behind consistent and correct terminology.

Our friends at the IPR have produced a great resource to help the industry do exactly that. The ‘Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement & Research’ painstakingly explains each term in common use and provides a clear definition too. Edited by Don Stacks and Shannon Bowen, ‘The Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement & Research’ is available for download here.


The IPR, the USA based Institute for Public Relations (as distinct from the UK’s PR trade association the CIPR), has updated its excellent White Paper “Guidelines for Setting Measurable Public Relations Objectives”.

Setting measurable objectives at the outset of any PR activity is of fundamental importance. Communications objectives need to support the goals of the organisation. They should be SMART (specific, measurable, achievable,  relevant and time-bound). They need to be set out in advance of any work with a clear indication of what success would look like. Communications objectives need to move beyond counting outputs to linking the communications activity to changing attitudes and behaviours and ultimately organisational impact.

The IPR’s excellent White Paper provides lots more information on this crucially important  subject. Authored by the IPR’s Measurement Commission and spearheaded by Forrest W. Anderson Planning & Evaluation Consultant,Linda Hadley, Senior Vice President, Research, Porter Novelli, David Rockland Partner & CEO, Ketchum Global Research & Analytics and Mark Weiner, CEO of PRIME Research Americas.

The Paper, ‘Guidelines for Setting Measurable Public Relations Objectives” can be downloaded here.


Traditonal mediaBARB – Broadcast Audience Research BoarProvides viewing data on a weekly, monthly and quarterly basis. Includes data on channels, programmes and viewing.barb.co.uk
JICREG – Joint Industry Committee for Regional Media ResearchProvides newspaper and website reports for regional press by region. Reports cover average issue readership, and demographics including age, gender and socio-economic grade.jiab.jicreg.co.uk
MediatelMediatel is a media industry destination for media data, planning tools, market insight, news and conferencesmediatel.co.uk/
Newspaper SocietyThis has limited information about readership and coverage.newsmediauk.org
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience ResearchProvides quarterly listening figures for national and local radio stations including reach and average hours per listener. Includes infographics on radio listening and digital platforms.nrs.co.uk
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience ResearchProvides quarterly listening figures for national and local radio stations including reach and average hours per listener. Includes infographics on radio listening and digital platforms.rajar.co.uk
Social / digital mediaAlexaSource of website traffic data.alexa.com
BacktweetsSearch for links on Twitterbacktweets.com
BitlyThis is a tool that provides a shortened URL and can deliver associated analytics such as the history of clicks, and sharing through Facebook and Twitter.bitly.com
BufferAllows you to drive traffic, increase engagement and save time on social mediabuffer.com
Facebook InsightsAnalytics on interaction with your accountfacebook.com/help/search/?q=insights
Google AlertsProvides regular alerts on new web, news blog and research content based on search criteriagoogle.co.uk/alerts
Google AnalyticsWebsite analyticsgoogle.co.uk/analytics
Google News SearchAggregated headlines and search engine for many news servicesnews.google.co.uk
Google TrendsExplore trends in what people are searching for on Googlegoogle.co.uk/trends
HootsuitePlanning and management tool for social mediahootsuite.com
KredInfluence score and platformhome.kred
LinkedIn AnalyticsAnalytics on interaction with individual accountslinkedin.com/help
Social BakersData-driven insights from social mediasocialbakers.com
SocialmentionReal-time social media search & analysissocialmention.com
ThunderclapThunderclap is a “crowdspeaking” platform that lets individuals and companies rally people together to spread a message.thunderclap.it
TraackrInfluencer identification and management platformtraackr.com
TweetdeckTwitter listening & engagement tooltweetdeck.twitter.com
TweriodTweriod gives you the best times to tweet.tweriod.com
Twitter AnalyticsAnalytics on interaction with your accountanalytics.twitter.com
Paid media
IAB – Internet Advertising BureauThe IAB site includes a jargon buster in the resources section, and features data and infographics on certain sectorsiabuk.net
IPA – Institute of Practitioners in AdvertisingThe IPA site includes a Best Practice Guide to Evaluation of advertising campaignsipa.co.uk
NetvibesDashboard solution for Advertising, Social, Media and PR agenciesnetvibes.com
Market research EventbriteA tool that enables promotion, management of invitations and registration for events with the ability to monitor response and entry on the day.eventbrite.co.uk
Mail Chimp
A tool to create, send and track email traffic.mailchimp.com
Market Research Society
The Market Research Society (MRS) is the world’s leading research association. For all those who need, use, generate or interpret the evidence essential to making good decisions for commercial and public policy.mrs.org.uk
PolldaddyOnline survey toolpolldaddy.com
Smart SurveyOnline survey toolsmartsurvey.co.uk
Survey MonkeyOnline survey toolsurveymonkey.co.uk
Business insights and data visualisationMicrosoft BIMicrosoft Power BI transforms data into rich visualspowerbi.microsoft.com
TableauVisualisation tool for data from different sourcestableau.com
PiktochartInfographic makerpiktochart.com
PreziPresentation softwareprezi.com
MiscellaneousAMECThe go to site for measurement and analysis resources including a list of measurement providers, best practice and case studiesamecorg.com/resource-centre
CIPRThe CIPR has a number of resources including a Social Media Measurement Guide and a Guide to Social Media Monitoring.cipr.co.uk
data.gov.ukGovernment data and reports. Refine your search by using the menu on the left of the page – ‘Publication Type’ offers research and analysis and statistics options.gov.uk
ICCOThe International Communications Consultancy Organisation (ICCO) is the voice of public relations consultancies around the worldiccopr.com
IPRThe Institute for Public Relations is a non-profit foundation dedicated to research in, on and for public relations.instituteforpr.org
Neighbourhood StatisticsIf you are working on a project which is more locally or regionally based, then this site offers a wealth of information.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk
OFCOM – the communications regulatorThe OFCOM site includes ownership and usage figures for television, digital radio and landline/mobile phones.ofcom.org
ONS – Office for National StatisticsA wealth of data (including 2011 Census data) that can be browsed by theme or alphabetically, rather than knowing what survey to look out for. Nomis is a service provided by the Office for National Statistics, ONS, to give you free access to the most detailed and up-to-date UK labour market statistics from official sources.ons.gov.uk/ons
PRCAThe PRCA promotes all aspects of public relations and internal communications work, helping teams and individuals maximise the value they deliver to clients and organisationsprca.org.uk

Case Studies








Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2011). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications (2nd ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Blanchard, O. (2011). Social media ROI: Managing and measuring social media efforts in your organization. Indianapolis, IN: Que; Boston, MA: Pearson.

Brody, E., & Stone, G. (1989). Public relations research. New York, NY: Praeger.

Broom, G., & Dozier, D. (1990). Using research in public relations: Applications to program management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Broom, G., & Macnamara, J. (2009). Evaluating the program. In G. Broom, Cutlip & Center’s effective public relations (10th ed., pp. 349–376). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Devereaux Ferguson, S. (1999). Constructing a theoretical framework for evaluating public relations programs and activities. In M. Roloff (Ed.). Communication yearbook 21 (pp. 191–229). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ehling, W. (1992). Estimating the value of public relations and communication to an organization. In J. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in public relations and communication management (pp. 617–638). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gregory A., & White, J. (2008). Introducing the Chartered Institute of Public Relations initiative: Moving on from talking about evaluation to incorporating it into better management of the practice. In B. van Ruler, A. Verčič, & D. Verčič (Eds.), Public relations metrics, research and evaluation (pp. 307–317). New York, NY: Routledge.

Grunig, J. (2008). Conceptualizing quantitative research in public relations. In B. van Ruler, A. Verčič, & D. Verčič (Eds.), Public relations metrics, research and evaluation (pp. 88–119). New York, NY: Routledge.

Grunig, L., Grunig, J., & Dozier, D. (2002). Excellent organizations and effective organizations: A study of communication management in three countries. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Li, C., & Stacks, D. (2015). Measuring the impact of social media on business profit and success. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Likely, F., & Watson, T. (2013). Measuring the edifice: Public relations measurement and evaluation practice over the course of 40 years. In K. Sriramesh, A. Zerfass, & J. Kim, (Eds.), Public relations and communication management: Current trends and emerging topics (pp. 143–162). New York, NY: Routledge. Available at http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/20494/

Macnamara, J. (2002). Research and evaluation. In C. Tymson & P. Lazar, The new Australian and New Zealand public relations manual (21st Century ed., pp. 100–134). Sydney, NSW: Tymson Communications.

Macnamara, J. (2012). Public Relations Theory, Practice, Critiques. Sydney, NSW: Pearson.

Paine, KD (2011) Measure What Matters: Online Tools For Understanding Customers, Social Media, Engagement, and Key Relationships.  Wiley

Pavlik, J. (1987). Public relations: What research tells us. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Shelddrake, P (2011) The Business of Influence: Reframing marketing and PR for the digital age Wiley.

Stacks, D. (2011). Primer of public relations research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guildford Press.

Stacks, D., & Michaelson, D. (2010). A practitioner’s guide to public relations research, measurement, and evaluation. New York, NY: Business Experts Press.

Stacks, D., & Watson, M. (2007). Two-way communication based on quantitative research and measurement. In E. Toth (Ed.), The future of excellence in public relations and communication management: Challenges for the next generation (pp. 67–84). Mahwah, NJ; Lawrence Erlbaum.

Theaker, A. (2012). The public relations handbook (4th ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.  van Ruler, B., Verčič, A., & Verčič, D. (Eds.). (2008). Public relations metrics: Research and evaluation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Watson, T. (1996). New models for evaluating public relations practice. In B. Baerns & J. Klewes (Eds.), Jahrbuch public relations (pp. 50–62). Dusseldorf: Econ Verlag.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2005). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2007). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation (2nd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2014). Evaluating Public Relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation (3rd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.

Weiner, Mark (2006) Unleashing the Power of PR: A contrarian’s guide to Marketing and communications US: Wiley

Zerfass, A. (2008). Corporate communication revisited: Integrating business strategy and strategic communication. In A. Zerfass, B. Van Ruler, & K. Sriramesh (Eds.), Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations (pp. 65-96). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Zerfass, A., van Ruler, B., & Sriramesh, K. (Eds.). (2008). Public Relations Research: European and International Perspectives and Innovations. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften (Springer Science + Business Media).


Baskin, O., Hahn, J., Seaman, S., & Reines, D. (2010). Perceived effectiveness and implementation of public relations measurement and evaluation tools among European providers and consumers of PR services. Public Relations Review, 36, 105–111.

Distaso, M., McCorkindale, T., & Wright, D. (2011). How public relations executives perceive and measure the impact of social media in their organizations. Public Relations Review, 37(3), 325–328.

Available at:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251582796_How_public_relations_executives_perceive_and_measure_the_impact_of_social_media_in_their_organizations

Donsbach, W., & Brade, A. (2011). Nothing is as practical as a good theory: What communication research can offer to the practice of political communication. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16(4), 508–522,

Fairchild, M. (2006). Evaluating public relations: a best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. Journal of Communication Management, 10(1), 113–115. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/13632540210807125

Fleisher, C., & Mahaffy, D. (1997). A balanced scorecard approach to public relations management assessment. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 117–123.

Gregory, A. (2001). Public relations and evaluation: Does the reality match the rhetoric. Journal of Marketing Communications, 7, 171–189.

Gregory, A., & Watson, T. (2008). Defining the gap between research and practice in public relations programme evaluation: Towards a new research agenda. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(5), 337–350.

Lee, L., & Yoon, Y. (2010). Return on investment (ROI) of international public relations: A country-level analysis. Public Relations Review, 36(1), 15–20.

Lindenmann, W. (1990). Research, evaluation and measurement: A national perspective. Public Relations Review, 16(2), 3–16.

Lindenman, W. (1993). An ‘effectiveness yardstick’ to measure public relations success. Public Relations Quarterly, 38(1), 7–9.

Lindenmann, W. (1998). Only PR outcomes count: That is the real bottom line. Journal of Communication Management, 3(1), 66–73.

Macnamara, J. (1992). Evaluation of public relations: The Achilles Heel of the public relations profession. International Public Relations Review, 15(2), 19–25.

Macnamara, J. (2005). Media content analysis: Its uses, benefits and best practice methodology. Asia Pacific Public Relations Review, 6(1), 1–34. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Media-Content-Analysis-Paper.pdf

Macnamara, J. (2014). The ‘toe bone to the head bone’ logic model to connect PR and corporate communication to organization outcomes. PRism, 11(1), 1–15. Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/homepage.html

Macnamara J. (2014). Emerging international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations: A critical analysis. Public Relations Inquiry, 3(1), 7–28.

Macnamara, J. (2015). Breaking the measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Journal of Communication Management, 19(4), 1–18.

Meng J., & Berger, B. (2012). Measuring return on investment (ROI) organizations’ internal communication effort. Journal of Communication Management, 16(4), 332–54.

Michaelson, D., & Stacks, D. (2011). Standardization in public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Journal, 5(2), 1–22.

Michaelson, D., Wright, D., & Stacks, D. (2012). Evaluating efficacy in public relations/corporate communication programming: Towards establishing standards of campaign performance. Public Relations Journal, 6(5), 1–24. Available at http://www.prsa.org/Intelligence/PRJournal/Vol6/No5/

Noble, P., & Watson, T. (1999). Applying a unified public relations evaluation model in a European context. Paper presented to Transnational Communication in Europe: Practice and Research International Congress, Berlin.

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (2013). Toward the establishment of ethical standardization in public relations research, measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Journal, 7(3), 1–28. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/prjournal/documents/2013_stacksbowen.pdf

Watson, T. (2005). ROI or evidence-based PR: The language of public relations evaluation. Prism, 3(1). Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/fileadmin/Praxis/Files/Journal_Files/Issue3/Watson.pdf

Watson, T. (2008). Public relations research priorities: A Delphi study. Journal of Communication Management, 12(2), 104–123.

Watson, T. (2012). The evolution of public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 390–398.

Watson, T., & Zerfass, A. (2011). Return on investment in public relations: A critique of concepts used by practitioners from communication and management sciences perspectives. PRism, 8(1), 1–14. Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/vol8_1.html

Xavier, R., Patel, A., Johnston, K., Watson, T., & Simmons, P. (2005). Using evaluation techniques and performance claims to demonstrate public relations impact: An Australian perspective. Public Relations Review, 31(3), 417–424.

Zerfass, A. (2009). Institutionalizing strategic communication: Theoretical analysis and empirical evidence. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 3, 69 –71.

Zerfass, A. (2010). Assuring rationality and transparency in corporate communications. Theoretical foundations and empirical findings on communication controlling and communication performance management. In M. Dodd & K. Yamamura (Eds.), Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World, 13th International Public Relations Research Conference (pp. 947–966). Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://iprrc.org/paperinfo_proceedings


Carroll, T., & Stacks, D. (2004). Bibliography of public relations measurement. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/PRM_Bibliography.pdf

Childers, L., & Grunig, J. (1999). Guidelines for measuring relationship in public relations. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/measuring-relationships/

Eisenmann, M., O’Neil, J., & Geddes, D. (2015). An examination of the validity, reliability and best practice related to the standards for traditional media. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 2(1), 1–29. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/examination-validity-reliability-best-practices-related-standards-traditional-media/

European Commission. (2014, August). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Henningsen, A., Traverse Healy, K., Gregory, A. Johannsen, A., Allison, R., Bozeat, N., & Domaradzki, L. (2014, August 1). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Huhn, J., Sass, J., & Storck, C. (2011). Communication controlling: How to maximize and demonstrate the value creation through communication. Berlin, Germany: German Public Relations Association (DPRG). Available athttp://www.quadriga.eu/_files/downloads/2011-11-16_position-paper_com-controlling.pdf

Jeffrey, A. (2015). How to measure social media: Linking PR activities to target audience effects. The Measurement Standard, January 10. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/2015/01/measure-social-media-choosing-tools-benchmarking

Likely, F. (2012). Principles for the use of return on investment (ROI), Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) financial metrics in a public relations/communication (PR/C) department. Paper presented to the 15th International Public Relations Research Conference, 8–10 March, Miami, FL. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/15th-IPRRC-Proceedings1.pdf

Likely, F., Rockland, D., & Weiner, M. (2006). Perspectives on the ROI of media relations publicity efforts. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/research_single/perspectives_on_the_roi/

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Using research to measure the effectiveness of PR programs. Quirk’s Marketing Research. Retrieved from http://www.quirks.com/articles/a1997/19970204.aspx

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Guidelines and standards for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. PR Pundit. Available at http://prpundit.com/pdf/prTools/MeasuringandEvaluatingPREffectiveness.pdf

Lindenmann, W. (2001). Research doesn’t have to put you in the poorhouse. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/research-savings

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainsville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf (Original work published 1997)

Macnamara, J. (2014). Breaking the PR measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Paper presented to the AMEC Summit on Measurement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Available at http://amecorg.com/downloads/amsterdam2014/Breaking-the-PR-Measurement-Deadlock-A-New-Approach-and-Model-Jim-Macnamara.pdf

McCorkindale, T., DiStaso, M. (2014). The state of social media research: Where are we now, where we were and what it means for public relations. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 1(1), 1–17. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/state-social-media-research-now-means-public-relations

Sinickas, A. (2003). Focus on behaviour change to prove ROI. Strategic Communication Management, 7(6), 12–13. Available at http://www.sinicom.com/Sub%20Pages/pubs/articles/article58.pdf

Skelley, L., & Ziviani, M. (2012). Measuring PR performance across borders: How a global programme works. In PR Professionals Definitive Guide to Measurement, Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication, London, UK. Available at http://prguidetomeasurement.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Chapter-5-Laura-Skelley-Michael-Ziviani.pdf

Smith, B. (2008). Representing PR in the marketing mix: A study on public relations variables in marketing mix modelling. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/BG_SmithKetchum.pdf

Solis, B. (2010). ROI: How to measure return on investment in social media. @Brian Solis, 22 February. Available at http://www.briansolis.com/2010/02/roi-how-to-measure-return-on-investment-in-social-media

DPRG/ICV framework for communication controlling. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/positions/framework.html

European Commission. (2015, July). Toolkit for the evaluation of the communication activities. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Fairchild, M. (2001). The IPR toolkit: Planning, research and evaluation for public relations success (2nd ed.). London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

Fairchild, F., & O’Conner, N. (1999). The public relations research and evaluation toolkit: How to measure the effectiveness of PR. London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

GCS (Government Communication Service). (2015). Evaluation Framework. Cabinet Office, Whitehall, London, UK. Available at https://gcs.civilservice.gov.uk/guidance/evaluation/tools-and-resources

IPRA (International Public Relations Association). (1994). Public relations evaluation: Professional accountability, Gold Paper No. 11, November. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

Lindenman, W. (1997). Guidelines for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf . (Revised version of original work 1997)

Lindenmann, W. (2006). Public Relations Research for Planning and Evaluation. Resource booklet. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2006_Planning_Eval.pdf

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Principles on best practice in research, measurement, and evaluation in public relations. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6726

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Media and social media content analysis guidelines. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6727

Public Relations Society of America. (2014). Measurement resources. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/businesscase/measurementresources

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (Eds.). (2013). Dictionary of public relations measurement and research. Gainesville FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/dictionary-of-public-relations-measurement-and-research/ 


Macnamara, J. (2014). The development of international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations and corporate communication: A review. Sydney, NSW: Australian Centre for Public Communication, University of Technology Sydney. Available at https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/acpc-pr-measurement-and-evaluation-review.pdf

Wright, D., Gaunt, R., Leggetter, B., Daniels, M., & Zerfass, A. (2009). Global survey of communications measurement 2009 – final report. London, UK: Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Global-Survey-Communications_Measurement-20091.pdf

Zerfass, A., Verčič, D., Verhoeven, P., Moreno, A., & Tench, R. (2015). European communication monitor 2015. Brussels, Belgium: European Association for Communication Directors (EACD) and European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) in association with Helios Media, Berlin. Available at http://www.zerfass.de/ECM-WEBSITE/media/ECM2015-Results-ChartVersion.pdf


Geddes, D., Grunig, J., Likely, F., Lindenmann, W., Macleod, S., Macnamara, J. Mathes, R., Paine, K., Rockland, D., Stacks, D., & Watson, T. (2010). Thought leaders in PR measurement. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/resources/interviews/thought-leaders.html 

Institute for Public Relations Measurement Commission. (2015). Research and conversations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/center/ipr-measurement-center/

Melcrum. (2015). Measurement and evaluation. Web site resources for internal communication. Available at https://www.melcrum.com/internal-communication-measurement-evaluation

Paine Publishing. (n.d.). K. Paine (Publisher). Available at http://painepublishing.com/

Public Relations Society of America and American Statistical Association. (2011). Best Practices Guide for Use of Statistics in Public Relations. Available at http://amecorg.com/white-papers-and-reports/

Salience Insight and News International. (n.d.). B. Paarlberg (Ed.), The Measurement Standard. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/


Behavioural Economics / Behavioural Insights:

Behavioural Insights. (2015). [Web site]. London, UK. Available at http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk

 Psychology Today. (2015). [Web site]. Available at https://www.psychologytoday.com/topics/behavioral-economics

Samson, A., (Ed.). (2014). The behavioral economics guide 2014. Available at http://www.behavioraleconomics.com/BEGuide2014.pdf

Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Health Communication / Health Promotion:

Bauman, A., & Nutbeam, D. (2014). Evaluation in a nutshell: A practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

Hornik, R. (Ed.). (2002). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kreps, G. (2014). Evaluating health communication programs to enhance health care and health promotion. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 19(12), 1449–1459.

O’Connor-Fleming, M., Parker, E., Higgins, H., & Gould, T. (2006). A framework for evaluating health promotion programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 17(1), 61–66. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/9440/1/9440.pdf

Rice, R., & Atkin, C. (Eds.). (2013). Public communication campaigns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shiavo, R. (2014). Planning, implementing, and evaluating a health communication intervention. In Health communication: From theory to practice (2nd ed., Part 3). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Program Theory and Theory of Change:

Anderson, A. (2005). The community builder’s approach to theory of change: A practical guide to theory and development. New York, NY: The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change.

Chen, H. (1990). Theory Driven Evaluations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Clark, H., & Taplin, D. (2012). Theory of change basics: A primer on theory of change. New York, NY: Actknowledge.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Lipsey, M., & Freeman, H. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wholey, J. (1987). Evaluability assessment: Developing program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 33, 77–92.

Program Evaluation: (See also ‘Program Logic Models’)

Barrett, F. (2013). Program evaluation: A step-by-step guide. Urbana, IL: Sunnycrest.

Boulmetis, J., & Dutwin, P. (2005). The ABCs of evaluation: Timeless techniques for program and project managers. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Freeman, H., & Lipsey, M. (2004). Evaluation. A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, C. (1972). Evaluative research: Methods of assessing program effectiveness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wholey, J. (1983). Evaluation and effective public management. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Wholey J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Yarbrough, B., Lyn, M., Shulha, H., Rodney K., & Caruthers, A. (2011). The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation Users (3rd ed.). Sage.

Program Logic Models:

Bennett, C. (1976). Analyzing impacts of extension programs, ESC-575.Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture Extension Service.

Fournier, D. (1995). Establishing evaluation conclusions: A distinction between general and working logic. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 68, 15–32.

Henert, E., & Taylor-Power, E. (2008). Developing a logic model: Teaching and training guide. Available at http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/pdf/lmguidecomplete.pdf

Julian, D. (1997). The utilization of the logic model as a system level planning and evaluation device. Evaluation and Program Planning, 20(3), 251–257.

Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: Author. Available at http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/pdf/eval-guides/logic-model-development-guide.pdf

Knowlton, L. & Phillips, C. (2013). The logic model guidebook: Better strategies for great results (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLaughlin, J., & Jordan, J. (1999). Logic models: a tool for telling your program’s performance story. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 65–72.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box.

Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

PCI (Practical Concepts, Inc.) (1979). The logical framework. A manager’s guide to a scientific approach to design & evaluation. Washington, DC. Available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnabn963.pdf

Rush, B., & Ogbourne A. (1991). Program logic models: Expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 6(2), 95–106.

Performance Management:

Better Evaluation. (2015). An international collaboration to improve evaluation practice. Website resources. Available at http://betterevaluation.org/

Boardman, E., Greenberg, D., Vining, A., & Weimer, D. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis concepts and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2014). How CSIRO ensures it delivers impact. Sydney, NSW: Author. Available at http://www.csiro.au/en/About/Strategy-structure/Our-impact-framework

International Integrated Reporting Council. (2013). International Integrated Reporting Framework. London, UK. Available at http://www.theiirc.org/international-ir-framework

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992, January-February). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71–79.

Layard, R., & Glaister, S. (1994). Cost-benefit analysis (2nd ed). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Levin, H., & McEwan, P. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love, A. (1991). Internal evaluation: Building organizations from within. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mishan, E., & Quah, E. (2007). Cost-benefit analysis (5th ed.). Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Walsh, C. (2008). Key management ratios (4th ed.). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.


Content Marketing Framework: Measurement. (n.d.). Content Marketing Institute. Available at http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/measurement/

Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P., & Reibstein, D. (2010). Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Nudge Marketing:

See ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Psychology/Social Psychology:

McGuire, W. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 136-314). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

McGuire, W. J. (2001). Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. In R. Rice & C. Atkin (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (3rd ed., pp. 22–48). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

See also ‘Engagement’ and ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’


Macey, W., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.

Meyer, J., & Smith, C. (2000). HRM practices and organisational commitment: A test of a mediation model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Services, 17, 319–331.

 Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. Available http://www.psychology.uh.edu/faculty/Eisenberger/files/04_Affective_Commitment_to_the_Organization.pdf

General Evaluation Resources:

American Evaluation Society – www.eval.org

Australasian Evaluation Society – www.aes.asn.au

Harvard Family Research Project, The Evaluation Exchange – www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/eval.html

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. In Research methods knowledge base. Available at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/evaluation.php 

United Kingdom Evaluation Society – http://www.evaluation.org.uk/