TERMINOLOGIE & WÖRTERBUCH DER PR MESSUNG & FORSCHUNG.

Analyse und Einblicke sind heute ein heißes Thema. In den zwanzig Jahren, die ich im Kommunikationssektor gearbeitet habe, habe ich nie ein derartiges Interesse an diesem Thema gesehen. Diese Nachfrage hat von neuen und alten Anbietern eine Reihe von vielen verschiedenen Instrumenten, Lösungen und Dienstleistungen zur Überwachung und Bewertung der Kommunikation geschaffen. Laut Ken Burbary’s Wiki gibt es weit über 220 Unternehmen die diese Arten von Dienstleistungen anbieten und diese Zahl wächst täglich.

Diese hohe Anzahl potenzieller Lieferanten mit unterschiedlichem Erfahrungsniveau kann zu Problemen führen. Einer davon ist der Mangel an Konsistenz in den Ergebnissen bei der Messung der gleichen Kampagne zwischen verschiedenen Anbietern. Eines der Hauptprobleme hierbei ist, dass häufig die falschen Begriffe und Definitionen von den Anbietern genutzt werden. ‘OTS’, ‘readership’, ‘circulation’, and ‘audience reach’ beispielswiese bedeuten alle verschiedene Dinge, werden aber von verschiedenen Lieferanten in einigen Fällen austauschbar verwendet. Es gibt viele andere Beispiele für diese Arten von Problemen. Kennt jemand den Unterschied zwischen “Hits” und “Pageviews”? Wenn wir dieses Problem als eine einheitlich Branche zu lösen wollen, ist es zwingend erforderlich, dass wir alle sagen, was wir meinen, und meinen, was wir sagen.

Wenn die Branche Standards setzten möchte und konsequente, glaubwürdige Ansätze zur Messung zeigen will, müssen wir uns zunächst auf eine konsistente und korrekte Terminologie einigen.

Unsere Freunde vom IPR haben eine große Ressource geschaffen um der Branche zu helfen genau das tun. Das Wörterbuch für Public Relations Messungen & Forschung erklärt sorgfältig jeden Begriff in der gemeinsamen Nutzung und liefert auch eine klare Definition. Bearbeitet von Don Stacks und Shannon Bowen, ‘The Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement & Research’ hier zum Download  zur Verfügung.

RICHTLINIEN FÜR DAS SETZEN MESSBARER PR-ZIELE

Das IPR, das US-amerikanische Institut für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit (das sich von der britischen PR-Handelsgesellschaft CIPR unterscheidet), hat seine ausgezeichnete Studie “Leitlinien für die Festlegung messbarer Public Relations-Ziele” aktualisiert.

Die Festlegung messbarer Ziele zu Beginn jeder PR-Tätigkeit ist von grundlegender Bedeutung. Kommunikationsziele müssen die Ziele der Organisation unterstützen. Sie sollten SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound) sein. Sie müssen im Voraus jeder Arbeit bestimmt werden, mit einem klaren Hinweis darauf, wie Erfolg aussehen sollte. Die Kommunikationsziele müssen über das Zählen der Ergebnisse hinausgehen, um die Kommunikationsaktivitäten mit veränderten Einstellungen und Verhaltensweisen und letztendlich mit organisatorischen Auswirkungen verbinden zu können.

Die hervorragende Studie des IPR bietet viel mehr Informationen zu diesem entscheidend wichtigen Thema. Verfasst von der IPR-Messkommission und von Forrest W. Anderson Berater für Planung und Evaluierung, Linda Hadley, Senior Vice President Research, Porter Novelli, David Rockland Partner & CEO, Ketchum Global Research & Analytics and Mark Weiner, CEO of PRIME Research Americas.

Das Arbeitspapier, ‘Guidelines for Setting Measurable Public Relations Objectives” finden Sie hier zum Download.

NÜTZLICHE RESSOURCEN ZUR NUTZUNG DES INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK

CATAGORYORGANISATIONTYPE OF DATALINK
Traditonal mediaBARB – Broadcast Audience Research BoarStellt Beobachtungsdaten wöchentlich, monatlich und vierteljährlich zur Verfügung. Enthält Daten über Kanäle, Programme und Anzeigenbarb.co.uk
JICREG – Joint Industry Committee for Regional Media ResearchBietet Zeitungs- und Website-Berichte für regionale Presse nach Region an. Die Berichte decken die durchschnittliche Leserschaft der Ausgabe und die Bevölkerungsdichte einschließlich Alter, Geschlecht und sozioökonomischer Einstufung ab.jiab.jicreg.co.uk
MediatelMediatel ist ein Medienunternehmensziel für Mediadaten, Planungswerkzeuge, Marktinformationen, Nachrichten und Konferenzenmediatel.co.uk/
Newspaper SocietyDies hat nur begrenzte Informationen über Leserschaft und Abdeckung.newsmediauk.org
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience ResearchBietet vierteljährliche Hörerzahlen für nationale und lokale Radiosender einschließlich Reichweite und durchschnittliche Stunden pro Hörer. Beinhaltet Infografiken über Hörfunk und digitale Plattformen.nrs.co.uk
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience ResearchBietet vierteljährliche Hörerzahlen für nationale und lokale Radiosender einschließlich Reichweite und durchschnittliche Stunden pro Hörer. Beinhaltet Infografiken über Hörfunk und digitale Plattformen.rajar.co.uk
Social / digital mediaAlexaQuelle für Website-Trafficalexa.com
BacktweetsSuche nach Links auf Twitterbacktweets.com
BitlyDies ist ein Tool, das eine verkürzte URL bereitstellt und zugehörige Analysen wie die Historie der Klicks und das Teilen über Facebook und Twitter bereitstellen kannbitly.com
BufferErmöglicht Ihnen den Verkehr und Engagement zu erhöhen und Zeit auf Social Media zu sparen.buffer.com
Facebook InsightsAnalytics zur Interaktion mit Ihrem Kontofacebook.com/help/search/?q=insights
Google AlertsBietet regelmäßige Benachrichtigungen über neue Web-, News-Blog und Forschungsinhalte basierend auf Suchkriteriengoogle.co.uk/alerts
Google AnalyticsWebsite Analysegoogle.co.uk/analytics
Google News SearchAggregierte Schlagzeilen und Suchmaschinen für viele Nachrichtendienstenews.google.co.uk
Google TrendsEntdecken Sie Trends in dem was Menschen auf Google suchengoogle.co.uk/trends
HootsuitePlanungs- und Management-Tool für Social Mediahootsuite.com
KredEinfluss-Score und Plattformhome.kred
LinkedIn AnalyticsAnalyse von Interaktion mit einzelnen Kontenlinkedin.com/help
Social BakersDatengesteuerte Erkenntnisse aus Social Mediasocialbakers.com
SocialmentionEchtzeit-Social Media-Suche & Analysesocialmention.com
ThunderclapThunderclap ist eine “crowdspeaking” -Plattform, die Einzelpersonen und Unternehmen zusammenbringt, um eine Botschaft zu verbreiten.thunderclap.it
TraackrInfluencer-Identifikation und Management-Plattformtraackr.com
TweetdeckTwitter-Beobachter & Engagement-Werkzeugtweetdeck.twitter.com
TweriodTweriod zeigt Ihnen die besten Zeiten um zu tweeten.tweriod.com
Twitter AnalyticsAnalyse von Interaktion mit Ihrem Kontoanalytics.twitter.com
Paid media
IAB – Internet Advertising BureauDie IAB-Website enthält einen „Jargonbuster“ im Ressourcenbereich und enthält Daten und Infografiken zu bestimmten Sektoreniabuk.net
IPA – Institute of Practitioners in AdvertisingDie IPA-Website enthält einen Best Practice Guide für die Evaluierung von Werbekampagnenipa.co.uk
NetvibesDashboard-Lösung für Werbe-, Sozial-, Medien- und PR-Agenturennetvibes.com
Market researchEventbriteEin Tool, das die Werbung, das Management von Einladungen und die Registrierung für Veranstaltungen mit der Fähigkeit, die Reaktion und die Eintragung am Tag zu überwachen, ermöglicht.eventbrite.co.uk
Mail Chimp
Ein Tool zum Erstellen, Senden und Verfolgen von E-Mail-Verkehr.mailchimp.com
Market Research Society
Die Marktforschungsgesellschaft (MRS) ist der weltweit führende Forschungsverbund. Für alle, die die für eine gute Entscheidungsfindung in gewerblichen und öffentlichen Prozessen wesentlichen Elemente benötigen, verwenden, erzeugen oder interpretieren.mrs.org.uk
PolldaddyOnline-Umfrage-Toolpolldaddy.com
Smart SurveyOnline-Umfrage-Toolsmartsurvey.co.uk
Survey MonkeyOnline-Umfrage-Toolsurveymonkey.co.uk
Business insights and data visualisationMicrosoft BIMicrosoft Power BI verwandelt Daten in umfassende Darstellungenpowerbi.microsoft.com
TableauVisualisierungswerkzeug für Daten aus verschiedenen Quellentableau.com
PiktochartInfografischer Herstellerpiktochart.com
PreziPräsentationssoftwareprezi.com
MiscellaneousAMECEine Seite für Mess-und Analyse-Ressourcen, einschließlich einer Liste der Mess-Anbieter, Best Practice und Fallstudienamecorg.com/resource-centre
CIPRDas CIPR verfügt über eine Reihe von Ressourcen, darunter einen Leitfaden für Social Media Measurement und einen Leitfaden für Social Media Monitoring.cipr.co.uk
data.gov.ukRegierungsdaten und Berichte. Verfeinern Sie Ihre Suche über das Menü auf der linken Seite – “Publikationstyp” bietet Such- und Analyse- und Statistikoptionen.gov.uk
ICCODie International Communications Consultancy Organisation (ICCO) ist die Stimme für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit auf der ganzen Welticcopr.com
IPRDas Institut für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit ist eine gemeinnützige Stiftung für Forschung in und für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit.instituteforpr.org
Neighbourhood StatisticsWenn Sie an einem Projekt arbeiten, das mehr lokal oder regional orientiert ist, dann bietet diese Seite eine Fülle von Informationen.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk
OFCOM – the communications regulatorDie BAKOM-Website umfasst Besitz- und Nutzungsdaten für Fernsehen, digitales Radio und Festnetz / Mobiltelefone.ofcom.org
ONS – Office for National StatisticsEine Fülle von Daten (einschließlich 2011 Census Daten), die durchsucht werden können nach Thema oder alphabetisch, anstatt nach bestimmten Umfragen zu suchen. Nomis ist eine Dienstleistung des Amtes für nationale Statistiken, ONS, um Ihnen freien Zugang zu den detailliertesten und aktuellsten britischen Arbeitsmarktstatistiken aus offiziellen Quellen zu bieten.ons.gov.uk/ons
PRCADie PRCA fördert alle Aspekte der Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und der internen Kommunikation und hilft Teams und Einzelpersonen, den Wert zu maximieren, den sie Kunden und Organisationen liefernprca.org.uk

Case Studies

FRAMEWORK CASE STUDIES:

THE STROKE ASSOCIATIONDOWNLOAD

NHS BLOOD & TRANSPLANTDOWNLOAD

STONER SLOTHDOWNLOAD

WHO REALLY WON CHRISTMAS?DOWNLOAD

THE SOCIAL PR VIRTUOSODOWNLOAD

FURTHER READING / BIBLIOGRAPHY

Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2011). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications (2nd ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Blanchard, O. (2011). Social media ROI: Managing and measuring social media efforts in your organization. Indianapolis, IN: Que; Boston, MA: Pearson.

Brody, E., & Stone, G. (1989). Public relations research. New York, NY: Praeger.

Broom, G., & Dozier, D. (1990). Using research in public relations: Applications to program management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Broom, G., & Macnamara, J. (2009). Evaluating the program. In G. Broom, Cutlip & Center’s effective public relations (10th ed., pp. 349–376). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Devereaux Ferguson, S. (1999). Constructing a theoretical framework for evaluating public relations programs and activities. In M. Roloff (Ed.). Communication yearbook 21 (pp. 191–229). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ehling, W. (1992). Estimating the value of public relations and communication to an organization. In J. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in public relations and communication management (pp. 617–638). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gregory A., & White, J. (2008). Introducing the Chartered Institute of Public Relations initiative: Moving on from talking about evaluation to incorporating it into better management of the practice. In B. van Ruler, A. Verčič, & D. Verčič (Eds.), Public relations metrics, research and evaluation (pp. 307–317). New York, NY: Routledge.

Grunig, J. (2008). Conceptualizing quantitative research in public relations. In B. van Ruler, A. Verčič, & D. Verčič (Eds.), Public relations metrics, research and evaluation (pp. 88–119). New York, NY: Routledge.

Grunig, L., Grunig, J., & Dozier, D. (2002). Excellent organizations and effective organizations: A study of communication management in three countries. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Li, C., & Stacks, D. (2015). Measuring the impact of social media on business profit and success. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Likely, F., & Watson, T. (2013). Measuring the edifice: Public relations measurement and evaluation practice over the course of 40 years. In K. Sriramesh, A. Zerfass, & J. Kim, (Eds.), Public relations and communication management: Current trends and emerging topics (pp. 143–162). New York, NY: Routledge. Available at http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/20494/

Macnamara, J. (2002). Research and evaluation. In C. Tymson & P. Lazar, The new Australian and New Zealand public relations manual (21st Century ed., pp. 100–134). Sydney, NSW: Tymson Communications.

Macnamara, J. (2012). Public Relations Theory, Practice, Critiques. Sydney, NSW: Pearson.

Paine, KD (2011) Measure What Matters: Online Tools For Understanding Customers, Social Media, Engagement, and Key Relationships.  Wiley

Pavlik, J. (1987). Public relations: What research tells us. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Shelddrake, P (2011) The Business of Influence: Reframing marketing and PR for the digital age Wiley.

Stacks, D. (2011). Primer of public relations research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guildford Press.

Stacks, D., & Michaelson, D. (2010). A practitioner’s guide to public relations research, measurement, and evaluation. New York, NY: Business Experts Press.

Stacks, D., & Watson, M. (2007). Two-way communication based on quantitative research and measurement. In E. Toth (Ed.), The future of excellence in public relations and communication management: Challenges for the next generation (pp. 67–84). Mahwah, NJ; Lawrence Erlbaum.

Theaker, A. (2012). The public relations handbook (4th ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.  van Ruler, B., Verčič, A., & Verčič, D. (Eds.). (2008). Public relations metrics: Research and evaluation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Watson, T. (1996). New models for evaluating public relations practice. In B. Baerns & J. Klewes (Eds.), Jahrbuch public relations (pp. 50–62). Dusseldorf: Econ Verlag.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2005). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2007). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation (2nd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2014). Evaluating Public Relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation (3rd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.

Weiner, Mark (2006) Unleashing the Power of PR: A contrarian’s guide to Marketing and communications US: Wiley

Zerfass, A. (2008). Corporate communication revisited: Integrating business strategy and strategic communication. In A. Zerfass, B. Van Ruler, & K. Sriramesh (Eds.), Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations (pp. 65-96). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Zerfass, A., van Ruler, B., & Sriramesh, K. (Eds.). (2008). Public Relations Research: European and International Perspectives and Innovations. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften (Springer Science + Business Media).

ACADEMIC ARTICLES AND REFEREED CONFERENCE PAPERS

Baskin, O., Hahn, J., Seaman, S., & Reines, D. (2010). Perceived effectiveness and implementation of public relations measurement and evaluation tools among European providers and consumers of PR services. Public Relations Review, 36, 105–111.

Distaso, M., McCorkindale, T., & Wright, D. (2011). How public relations executives perceive and measure the impact of social media in their organizations. Public Relations Review, 37(3), 325–328.

Available at:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251582796_How_public_relations_executives_perceive_and_measure_the_impact_of_social_media_in_their_organizations

Donsbach, W., & Brade, A. (2011). Nothing is as practical as a good theory: What communication research can offer to the practice of political communication. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16(4), 508–522,

Fairchild, M. (2006). Evaluating public relations: a best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. Journal of Communication Management, 10(1), 113–115. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/13632540210807125

Fleisher, C., & Mahaffy, D. (1997). A balanced scorecard approach to public relations management assessment. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 117–123.

Gregory, A. (2001). Public relations and evaluation: Does the reality match the rhetoric. Journal of Marketing Communications, 7, 171–189.

Gregory, A., & Watson, T. (2008). Defining the gap between research and practice in public relations programme evaluation: Towards a new research agenda. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(5), 337–350.

Lee, L., & Yoon, Y. (2010). Return on investment (ROI) of international public relations: A country-level analysis. Public Relations Review, 36(1), 15–20.

Lindenmann, W. (1990). Research, evaluation and measurement: A national perspective. Public Relations Review, 16(2), 3–16.

Lindenman, W. (1993). An ‘effectiveness yardstick’ to measure public relations success. Public Relations Quarterly, 38(1), 7–9.

Lindenmann, W. (1998). Only PR outcomes count: That is the real bottom line. Journal of Communication Management, 3(1), 66–73.

Macnamara, J. (1992). Evaluation of public relations: The Achilles Heel of the public relations profession. International Public Relations Review, 15(2), 19–25.

Macnamara, J. (2005). Media content analysis: Its uses, benefits and best practice methodology. Asia Pacific Public Relations Review, 6(1), 1–34. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Media-Content-Analysis-Paper.pdf

Macnamara, J. (2014). The ‘toe bone to the head bone’ logic model to connect PR and corporate communication to organization outcomes. PRism, 11(1), 1–15. Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/homepage.html

Macnamara J. (2014). Emerging international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations: A critical analysis. Public Relations Inquiry, 3(1), 7–28.

Macnamara, J. (2015). Breaking the measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Journal of Communication Management, 19(4), 1–18.

Meng J., & Berger, B. (2012). Measuring return on investment (ROI) organizations’ internal communication effort. Journal of Communication Management, 16(4), 332–54.

Michaelson, D., & Stacks, D. (2011). Standardization in public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Journal, 5(2), 1–22.

Michaelson, D., Wright, D., & Stacks, D. (2012). Evaluating efficacy in public relations/corporate communication programming: Towards establishing standards of campaign performance. Public Relations Journal, 6(5), 1–24. Available at http://www.prsa.org/Intelligence/PRJournal/Vol6/No5/

Noble, P., & Watson, T. (1999). Applying a unified public relations evaluation model in a European context. Paper presented to Transnational Communication in Europe: Practice and Research International Congress, Berlin.

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (2013). Toward the establishment of ethical standardization in public relations research, measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Journal, 7(3), 1–28. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/prjournal/documents/2013_stacksbowen.pdf

Watson, T. (2005). ROI or evidence-based PR: The language of public relations evaluation. Prism, 3(1). Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/fileadmin/Praxis/Files/Journal_Files/Issue3/Watson.pdf

Watson, T. (2008). Public relations research priorities: A Delphi study. Journal of Communication Management, 12(2), 104–123.

Watson, T. (2012). The evolution of public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 390–398.

Watson, T., & Zerfass, A. (2011). Return on investment in public relations: A critique of concepts used by practitioners from communication and management sciences perspectives. PRism, 8(1), 1–14. Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/vol8_1.html

Xavier, R., Patel, A., Johnston, K., Watson, T., & Simmons, P. (2005). Using evaluation techniques and performance claims to demonstrate public relations impact: An Australian perspective. Public Relations Review, 31(3), 417–424.

Zerfass, A. (2009). Institutionalizing strategic communication: Theoretical analysis and empirical evidence. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 3, 69 –71.

Zerfass, A. (2010). Assuring rationality and transparency in corporate communications. Theoretical foundations and empirical findings on communication controlling and communication performance management. In M. Dodd & K. Yamamura (Eds.), Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World, 13th International Public Relations Research Conference (pp. 947–966). Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://iprrc.org/paperinfo_proceedings

ONLINE ARTICLES AND PROFESSIONAL PAPERS

Carroll, T., & Stacks, D. (2004). Bibliography of public relations measurement. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/PRM_Bibliography.pdf

Childers, L., & Grunig, J. (1999). Guidelines for measuring relationship in public relations. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/measuring-relationships/

Eisenmann, M., O’Neil, J., & Geddes, D. (2015). An examination of the validity, reliability and best practice related to the standards for traditional media. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 2(1), 1–29. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/examination-validity-reliability-best-practices-related-standards-traditional-media/

European Commission. (2014, August). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Henningsen, A., Traverse Healy, K., Gregory, A. Johannsen, A., Allison, R., Bozeat, N., & Domaradzki, L. (2014, August 1). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Huhn, J., Sass, J., & Storck, C. (2011). Communication controlling: How to maximize and demonstrate the value creation through communication. Berlin, Germany: German Public Relations Association (DPRG). Available athttp://www.quadriga.eu/_files/downloads/2011-11-16_position-paper_com-controlling.pdf

Jeffrey, A. (2015). How to measure social media: Linking PR activities to target audience effects. The Measurement Standard, January 10. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/2015/01/measure-social-media-choosing-tools-benchmarking

Likely, F. (2012). Principles for the use of return on investment (ROI), Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) financial metrics in a public relations/communication (PR/C) department. Paper presented to the 15th International Public Relations Research Conference, 8–10 March, Miami, FL. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/15th-IPRRC-Proceedings1.pdf

Likely, F., Rockland, D., & Weiner, M. (2006). Perspectives on the ROI of media relations publicity efforts. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/research_single/perspectives_on_the_roi/

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Using research to measure the effectiveness of PR programs. Quirk’s Marketing Research. Retrieved from http://www.quirks.com/articles/a1997/19970204.aspx

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Guidelines and standards for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. PR Pundit. Available at http://prpundit.com/pdf/prTools/MeasuringandEvaluatingPREffectiveness.pdf

Lindenmann, W. (2001). Research doesn’t have to put you in the poorhouse. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/research-savings

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainsville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf (Original work published 1997)

Macnamara, J. (2014). Breaking the PR measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Paper presented to the AMEC Summit on Measurement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Available at http://amecorg.com/downloads/amsterdam2014/Breaking-the-PR-Measurement-Deadlock-A-New-Approach-and-Model-Jim-Macnamara.pdf

McCorkindale, T., DiStaso, M. (2014). The state of social media research: Where are we now, where we were and what it means for public relations. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 1(1), 1–17. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/state-social-media-research-now-means-public-relations

Sinickas, A. (2003). Focus on behaviour change to prove ROI. Strategic Communication Management, 7(6), 12–13. Available at http://www.sinicom.com/Sub%20Pages/pubs/articles/article58.pdf

Skelley, L., & Ziviani, M. (2012). Measuring PR performance across borders: How a global programme works. In PR Professionals Definitive Guide to Measurement, Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication, London, UK. Available at http://prguidetomeasurement.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Chapter-5-Laura-Skelley-Michael-Ziviani.pdf

Smith, B. (2008). Representing PR in the marketing mix: A study on public relations variables in marketing mix modelling. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/BG_SmithKetchum.pdf

Solis, B. (2010). ROI: How to measure return on investment in social media. @Brian Solis, 22 February. Available at http://www.briansolis.com/2010/02/roi-how-to-measure-return-on-investment-in-social-media

DPRG/ICV framework for communication controlling. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/positions/framework.html

European Commission. (2015, July). Toolkit for the evaluation of the communication activities. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Fairchild, M. (2001). The IPR toolkit: Planning, research and evaluation for public relations success (2nd ed.). London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

Fairchild, F., & O’Conner, N. (1999). The public relations research and evaluation toolkit: How to measure the effectiveness of PR. London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

GCS (Government Communication Service). (2015). Evaluation Framework. Cabinet Office, Whitehall, London, UK. Available at https://gcs.civilservice.gov.uk/guidance/evaluation/tools-and-resources

IPRA (International Public Relations Association). (1994). Public relations evaluation: Professional accountability, Gold Paper No. 11, November. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

Lindenman, W. (1997). Guidelines for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf . (Revised version of original work 1997)

Lindenmann, W. (2006). Public Relations Research for Planning and Evaluation. Resource booklet. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2006_Planning_Eval.pdf

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Principles on best practice in research, measurement, and evaluation in public relations. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6726

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Media and social media content analysis guidelines. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6727

Public Relations Society of America. (2014). Measurement resources. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/businesscase/measurementresources

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (Eds.). (2013). Dictionary of public relations measurement and research. Gainesville FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/dictionary-of-public-relations-measurement-and-research/ 

RESEARCH REPORTS

Macnamara, J. (2014). The development of international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations and corporate communication: A review. Sydney, NSW: Australian Centre for Public Communication, University of Technology Sydney. Available at https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/acpc-pr-measurement-and-evaluation-review.pdf

Wright, D., Gaunt, R., Leggetter, B., Daniels, M., & Zerfass, A. (2009). Global survey of communications measurement 2009 – final report. London, UK: Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Global-Survey-Communications_Measurement-20091.pdf

Zerfass, A., Verčič, D., Verhoeven, P., Moreno, A., & Tench, R. (2015). European communication monitor 2015. Brussels, Belgium: European Association for Communication Directors (EACD) and European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) in association with Helios Media, Berlin. Available at http://www.zerfass.de/ECM-WEBSITE/media/ECM2015-Results-ChartVersion.pdf

OTHER RESOURCES FOR PR AND COMMUNICATION EVALUATION

Geddes, D., Grunig, J., Likely, F., Lindenmann, W., Macleod, S., Macnamara, J. Mathes, R., Paine, K., Rockland, D., Stacks, D., & Watson, T. (2010). Thought leaders in PR measurement. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/resources/interviews/thought-leaders.html 

Institute for Public Relations Measurement Commission. (2015). Research and conversations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/center/ipr-measurement-center/

Melcrum. (2015). Measurement and evaluation. Web site resources for internal communication. Available at https://www.melcrum.com/internal-communication-measurement-evaluation

Paine Publishing. (n.d.). K. Paine (Publisher). Available at http://painepublishing.com/

Public Relations Society of America and American Statistical Association. (2011). Best Practices Guide for Use of Statistics in Public Relations. Available at http://amecorg.com/white-papers-and-reports/

Salience Insight and News International. (n.d.). B. Paarlberg (Ed.), The Measurement Standard. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/

EVALUATION LITERATURE IN OTHER DISCIPLINES

Behavioural Economics / Behavioural Insights:

Behavioural Insights. (2015). [Web site]. London, UK. Available at http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk

 Psychology Today. (2015). [Web site]. Available at https://www.psychologytoday.com/topics/behavioral-economics

Samson, A., (Ed.). (2014). The behavioral economics guide 2014. Available at http://www.behavioraleconomics.com/BEGuide2014.pdf

Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Health Communication / Health Promotion:

Bauman, A., & Nutbeam, D. (2014). Evaluation in a nutshell: A practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

Hornik, R. (Ed.). (2002). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kreps, G. (2014). Evaluating health communication programs to enhance health care and health promotion. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 19(12), 1449–1459.

O’Connor-Fleming, M., Parker, E., Higgins, H., & Gould, T. (2006). A framework for evaluating health promotion programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 17(1), 61–66. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/9440/1/9440.pdf

Rice, R., & Atkin, C. (Eds.). (2013). Public communication campaigns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shiavo, R. (2014). Planning, implementing, and evaluating a health communication intervention. In Health communication: From theory to practice (2nd ed., Part 3). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Program Theory and Theory of Change:

Anderson, A. (2005). The community builder’s approach to theory of change: A practical guide to theory and development. New York, NY: The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change.

Chen, H. (1990). Theory Driven Evaluations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Clark, H., & Taplin, D. (2012). Theory of change basics: A primer on theory of change. New York, NY: Actknowledge.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Lipsey, M., & Freeman, H. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wholey, J. (1987). Evaluability assessment: Developing program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 33, 77–92.

Program Evaluation: (See also ‘Program Logic Models’)

Barrett, F. (2013). Program evaluation: A step-by-step guide. Urbana, IL: Sunnycrest.

Boulmetis, J., & Dutwin, P. (2005). The ABCs of evaluation: Timeless techniques for program and project managers. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Freeman, H., & Lipsey, M. (2004). Evaluation. A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, C. (1972). Evaluative research: Methods of assessing program effectiveness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wholey, J. (1983). Evaluation and effective public management. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Wholey J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Yarbrough, B., Lyn, M., Shulha, H., Rodney K., & Caruthers, A. (2011). The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation Users (3rd ed.). Sage.

Program Logic Models:

Bennett, C. (1976). Analyzing impacts of extension programs, ESC-575.Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture Extension Service.

Fournier, D. (1995). Establishing evaluation conclusions: A distinction between general and working logic. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 68, 15–32.

Henert, E., & Taylor-Power, E. (2008). Developing a logic model: Teaching and training guide. Available at http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/pdf/lmguidecomplete.pdf

Julian, D. (1997). The utilization of the logic model as a system level planning and evaluation device. Evaluation and Program Planning, 20(3), 251–257.

Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: Author. Available at http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/pdf/eval-guides/logic-model-development-guide.pdf

Knowlton, L. & Phillips, C. (2013). The logic model guidebook: Better strategies for great results (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLaughlin, J., & Jordan, J. (1999). Logic models: a tool for telling your program’s performance story. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 65–72.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box.

Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

PCI (Practical Concepts, Inc.) (1979). The logical framework. A manager’s guide to a scientific approach to design & evaluation. Washington, DC. Available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnabn963.pdf

Rush, B., & Ogbourne A. (1991). Program logic models: Expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 6(2), 95–106.

Performance Management:

Better Evaluation. (2015). An international collaboration to improve evaluation practice. Website resources. Available at http://betterevaluation.org/

Boardman, E., Greenberg, D., Vining, A., & Weimer, D. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis concepts and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2014). How CSIRO ensures it delivers impact. Sydney, NSW: Author. Available at http://www.csiro.au/en/About/Strategy-structure/Our-impact-framework

International Integrated Reporting Council. (2013). International Integrated Reporting Framework. London, UK. Available at http://www.theiirc.org/international-ir-framework

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992, January-February). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71–79.

Layard, R., & Glaister, S. (1994). Cost-benefit analysis (2nd ed). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Levin, H., & McEwan, P. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love, A. (1991). Internal evaluation: Building organizations from within. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mishan, E., & Quah, E. (2007). Cost-benefit analysis (5th ed.). Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Walsh, C. (2008). Key management ratios (4th ed.). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.

Marketing:

Content Marketing Framework: Measurement. (n.d.). Content Marketing Institute. Available at http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/measurement/

Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P., & Reibstein, D. (2010). Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Nudge Marketing:

See ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Psychology/Social Psychology:

McGuire, W. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 136-314). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

McGuire, W. J. (2001). Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. In R. Rice & C. Atkin (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (3rd ed., pp. 22–48). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

See also ‘Engagement’ and ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Engagement:

Macey, W., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.

Meyer, J., & Smith, C. (2000). HRM practices and organisational commitment: A test of a mediation model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Services, 17, 319–331.

 Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. Available http://www.psychology.uh.edu/faculty/Eisenberger/files/04_Affective_Commitment_to_the_Organization.pdf

General Evaluation Resources:

American Evaluation Society – www.eval.org

Australasian Evaluation Society – www.aes.asn.au

Harvard Family Research Project, The Evaluation Exchange – www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/eval.html

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. In Research methods knowledge base. Available at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/evaluation.php 

United Kingdom Evaluation Society – http://www.evaluation.org.uk/

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