TERMINOLOGIA E DICIONÁRIO DE MEDIÇÃO DE RELAÇÕES PÚBLICAS E INVESTIGAÇÃO

Análises e insights são temas quentes nos negócios hoje. Na minha experiência de 20 anos trabalhando no setor de medição de comunicações, nunca vi tanto interesse no tema. Essa demanda criou uma onda de novos e antigos vendedores que oferecem diferentes ferramentas, soluções e serviços para monitorar e avaliar as comunicações. De acordo com o wiki do Ken Burbary, há bem mais de 220 empresas que oferecem estes tipos de serviços e este número está crescendo diariamente.

Este elevado número de potenciais fornecedores com diferentes níveis de experiência pode causar problemas. Um deles é a falta de consistência no resultado ao medir a mesma campanha entre um prestador e outro. Um dos problemas-chave aqui é que frequentemente os termos e definições errados estão sendo usados pelos prestadores. Por exemplo, ‘ OTS ‘, ‘ leitores ‘, ‘ circulação ‘ , e ‘ alcance de audiência ‘ significam coisas diferentes, mas em alguns casos são utilizados por diferentes fornecedores de forma aleatória. Há muitos outros exemplos desses tipos de problemas – alguém quer ‘hits’ e ‘page views ‘?

Como uma indústria, se quisermos resolver este problema, é imperativo que todos nós digamos o que queremos dizer, e que tenha significado o que dizemos. Como a indústria procura estabelecer padrões e demonstrar abordagens coerentes e credíveis para medição, é preciso primeiro nos alinharmos com uma terminologia consistente e correta.

Nossos amigos do IPR (Institute for Public Relations) produziram um grande recurso para ajudar a indústria a fazer exatamente isso. O ‘Dicionário de Medição e Investigação de Relações Públicas’ meticulosamente explica cada termo de uso comum e fornece uma definição clara também. Editado por Don Stacks e Shannon Bowen, O ‘Dicionário de Medição e Investigação de Relações Públicas’ está disponível para download aqui.

DIRETRIZES PARA ESTABELECER OBJETIVOS DE RP MENSURÁVEIS.

O IPR (Institute for Public Relations), com base nos EUA (diferente do CIPR/ Chartered Institute of Public Relations, do Reino Unido), atualizou seu excelente documento “Diretrizes Para Estabelecer Objetivos de RP Mensuráveis”.

Definir objetivos mensuráveis no início de qualquer atividade de RP é de fundamental importância. Objetivos de comunicação precisam apoiar os objetivos da organização. Eles devem ser SMART (specific/ específico, measurable/mensurável, achievable/alcançável, relevant/relevante e time-bound/ com tempo determinado). Precisam ser definidos antes de qualquer trabalho, com uma indicação clara de como seria o seu sucesso. Objetivos de comunicação precisam ir além de contar resultados a conectar a atividade de comunicação à mudança de atitudes e comportamentos, e finalmente, a um impacto organizacional.

O excelente documento do IPR fornece muito mais informações sobre este tão crucialmente importante assunto. De autoria da comissão de medição do IPR e liderado por Forrest W. Anderson, Consultor de Planejamento & Avaliação ,Linda Hadley, Vice-Presidente Sênior, Pesquisa, Porter Novelli, David Rockland Socio & CEO, Ketchum Global Research & Analytics e Mark Weiner, CEO da PRIME Research Americas.

O documento “Diretrizes Para Estabelecer Objetivos de RP Mensuráveis” pode ser baixado aqui.

RECURSOS ÚTEIS PARA UTILIZAÇÃO DO QUADRO INTEGRADO

CATEGORIAORGANIZAÇÃOTIPO DE INFORMAÇÃOCONEXÃO
Mídia tradicionalBARB – Broadcast Audience Research BoarFornece a visualização de dados em uma base semanal, mensal e trimestral . Inclui dados sobre canais, programas e visualização.barb.co.uk
JICREG – Joint Industry Committee for Regional Media ResearchFornece relatórios de jornal e site para imprensa regional, por região. Relatórios abrangem média de leitores e dados demográficos, incluindo idade, sexo e grau sócio-económico.jiab.jicreg.co.uk
MediatelMediatel é um destino indústria de mídia para os dados de mídia , ferramentas de planejamento , visão de mercado, notícias e conferênciasmediatel.co.uk/
Newspaper SocietyTem informações limitadas sobre leitores e cobertura.newsmediauk.org
NRS – National Redearship SurveyFornece estimativas de leitura de primeira linha de jornais nacionais e regionais, revistas em geral e revistas femininas, e as tendências em leitura e circulação.nrs.co.uk
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience ResearchFornece dados de escuta trimestrais para as estações nacionais e locais de rádio, incluindo alcance e média de horas por ouvinte . Inclui infográficos sobre a escuta de rádio e plataformas digitais.rajar.co.uk
Midia social/digitalAlexaFonte de dados de tráfego de sites.alexa.com
BacktweetsProcura por links no Twitterbacktweets.com
BitlyEsta é uma ferramenta que fornece uma URL encurtada e pode entregar análise associada, como histórico de cliques, e compartilha através do Facebook e Twitter.bitly.com
BufferPermite direcionar o tráfego , aumentar o envolvimento e economizar tempo na mídia social.
buffer.com
Facebook InsightsAnálise sobre a interação com a sua conta
facebook.com/help/search/?q=insights
Google AlertsFornece alertas regulares sobre nova web, blog de notícias e conteúdo da investigação com base em critérios de pesquisa
google.co.uk/alerts
Google AnalyticsAnálise de sites
google.co.uk/analytics
Google News SearchManchetes agregadas e motor de busca para muitos serviços de notícias
news.google.co.uk
Google TrendsExplorar as tendências em que as pessoas estão procurando no Google
google.co.uk/trends
HootsuiteFerramenta de planejamento e gestão para a mídia social
hootsuite.com
KredPontuação e plataformas de influência
home.kred
LinkedIn AnalyticsAnálise em interação com contas individuais
linkedin.com/help
Social BakersPercepções de informação de mídias sociais.
socialbakers.com
SocialmentionBusca e análise em tempo real em mídias sociais.
socialmention.com
ThunderclapThunderclap é uma plataforma “crowdspeaking” que permite aos indivíduos e empresas reunir as pessoas para difundir uma mensagem.
thunderclap.it
TraackrPlataforma de gestão e identificação de influenciadores.
traackr.com
TweetdeckFerramenta de monitoramento e engajamento do Twitter
tweetdeck.twitter.com
TweriodTweriod dá os melhores horários para tuitar.
tweriod.com
Twitter AnalyticsTweriod dá os melhores horários para tuitar. analytics.twitter.com
Mídia paga
IAB – Internet Advertising BureauO site IAB inclui um glossário de termos técnicos/jargões na seção de recursos, e apresenta dados e infográficos em alguns setoresiabuk.net
IPA – Institute of Practitioners in AdvertisingO site IPA inclui um Guia de Boas Práticas para a Avaliação de campanhas publicitáriasipa.co.uk
NetvibesPainel de soluções para agências de Publicidade, Mídias Sociais e RP.netvibes.com
Pesquisa de mercadoEventbriteUma ferramenta que permite a promoção, gestão de convites e inscrições para eventos com capacidade para monitorar a resposta e a entrada no dia.
eventbrite.co.uk
Mail Chimp
Uma ferramenta para criar, enviar e acompanhar o tráfego de e-mail.mailchimp.com
Market Research Society
A Market Research Society (MRS) é associação de pesquisa líder no mundo. Para todos aqueles que precisam, usam, geram ou interpretam a evidência essencial para tomar boas decisões para as políticas públicas e comerciais.
mrs.org.uk
PolldaddyFerramenta de pesquisa online
polldaddy.com
Smart SurveyFerramenta de pesquisa online
smartsurvey.co.uk
Survey MonkeyFerramenta de pesquisa onlinesurveymonkey.co.uk
Insights de negócios e visualização de dadosMicrosoft BIMicrosoft Power BI transforma dados em ricas visualizações
powerbi.microsoft.com
TableauFerramenta de visualização de dados de diferentes fontes
tableau.com
PiktochartElaborador de infografias
piktochart.com
PreziSoftware de apresentação
prezi.com
MiscellaneousAMECO site a se visitar para recursos de medição e análise, incluindo uma lista de fornecedores de medição, boas práticas e estudos de caso.
amecorg.com/resource-centre
CIPRO CIPR tem uma série de recursos , incluindo um guia de medição de mídia social e um guia para monitoramento social media.
cipr.co.uk
data.gov.ukDados do governo e relatórios. Limite a sua pesquisa usando o menu do lado esquerdo da página – ” Tipo de Publicação’ oferece opções de pesquisa e análise e estatística.
gov.uk
ICCOA International Communications Consultancy Organisation (ICCO) é a voz de consultorias de relações públicas em todo o mundo.iccopr.com
IPRO Institute for Public Relations é uma fundação sem fins lucrativos dedicada à investigação em, sobre e para as relações públicas.
instituteforpr.org
Neighbourhood StatisticsSe você estiver trabalhando em um projeto que é baseado mais localmente ou regionalmente, ste site oferece uma riqueza de informações.
neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk
OFCOM – the communications regulatorO site OFCOM inclui figuras de propriedade e de uso para televisão, rádio digital e telefones celulares fixos.
ofcom.org
ONS – Office for National StatisticsUma riqueza de dados (incluindo dados de 2011 do Censo) que podem ser visitados por tema ou ordem alfabética, em vez de saber qual busca fazer. Nomis é um serviço prestado pelo Office for National Statistics (ONS) que dá livre acesso às estatísticas mais atuais e detalhadas do mercado de trabalho no Reino Unido fornecidos por fontes oficiais.
ons.gov.uk/ons
PRCAO PRCA promove todos os aspectos de relações públicas e trabalho de comunicação interna, ajudando as equipes e indivíduos a maximizar o valor entregue aos clientes e organizações.
prca.org.uk

Estudos de Casos

Quadro de Estudos de Casos:

THE STROKE ASSOCIATIONBaixar

NHS BLOOD & TRANSPLANTBaixar

STONER SLOTHBaixar

Quem realmente ganhou o Natal? O virtuoso em relações públicasBaixar

O RP virtuoso socialBaixar

OUTRAS LEITURAS/BIBLIOGRAFIA

Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2011). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications (2nd ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Blanchard, O. (2011). Social media ROI: Managing and measuring social media efforts in your organization. Indianapolis, IN: Que; Boston, MA: Pearson.
Brody, E., & Stone, G. (1989). Public relations research. New York, NY: Praeger.
Broom, G., & Dozier, D. (1990). Using research in public relations: Applications to program management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Broom, G., & Macnamara, J. (2009). Evaluating the program. In G. Broom, Cutlip & Center’s effective public relations (10th ed., pp. 349–376). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Devereaux Ferguson, S. (1999). Constructing a theoretical framework for evaluating public relations programs and activities. In M. Roloff (Ed.). Communication yearbook 21 (pp. 191–229). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ehling, W. (1992). Estimating the value of public relations and communication to an organization. In J. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in public relations and communication management (pp. 617–638). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gregory A., & White, J. (2008). Introducing the Chartered Institute of Public Relations initiative: Moving on from talking about evaluation to incorporating it into better management of the practice. In B. van Ruler, A. Verčič, & D. Verčič (Eds.), Public relations metrics, research and evaluation (pp. 307–317). New York, NY: Routledge.
Grunig, J. (2008). Conceptualizing quantitative research in public relations. In B. van Ruler, A. Verčič, & D. Verčič (Eds.), Public relations metrics, research and evaluation (pp. 88–119). New York, NY: Routledge.
Grunig, L., Grunig, J., & Dozier, D. (2002). Excellent organizations and effective organizations: A study of communication management in three countries. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Li, C., & Stacks, D. (2015). Measuring the impact of social media on business profit and success. New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Likely, F., & Watson, T. (2013). Measuring the edifice: Public relations measurement and evaluation practice over the course of 40 years. In K. Sriramesh, A. Zerfass, & J. Kim, (Eds.), Public relations and communication management: Current trends and emerging topics (pp. 143–162). New York, NY: Routledge. Available at http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/20494/
Macnamara, J. (2002). Research and evaluation. In C. Tymson & P. Lazar, The new Australian and New Zealand public relations manual (21st Century ed., pp. 100–134). Sydney, NSW: Tymson Communications.
Macnamara, J. (2012). Public Relations Theory, Practice, Critiques. Sydney, NSW: Pearson.
Paine, KD (2011) Measure What Matters: Online Tools For Understanding Customers, Social Media, Engagement, and Key Relationships. Wiley
Pavlik, J. (1987). Public relations: What research tells us. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Shelddrake, P (2011) The Business of Influence: Reframing marketing and PR for the digital age Wiley.
Stacks, D. (2011). Primer of public relations research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guildford Press.
Stacks, D., & Michaelson, D. (2010). A practitioner’s guide to public relations research, measurement, and evaluation. New York, NY: Business Experts Press.
Stacks, D., & Watson, M. (2007). Two-way communication based on quantitative research and measurement. In E. Toth (Ed.), The future of excellence in public relations and communication management: Challenges for the next generation (pp. 67–84). Mahwah, NJ; Lawrence Erlbaum.
Theaker, A. (2012). The public relations handbook (4th ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. van Ruler, B., Verčič, A., & Verčič, D. (Eds.). (2008). Public relations metrics: Research and evaluation. New York, NY: Routledge.
Watson, T. (1996). New models for evaluating public relations practice. In B. Baerns & J. Klewes (Eds.), Jahrbuch public relations (pp. 50–62). Dusseldorf: Econ Verlag.
Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2005). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. London, UK: Kogan Page.
Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2007). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation (2nd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.
Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2014). Evaluating Public Relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation (3rd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.
Weiner, Mark (2006) Unleashing the Power of PR: A contrarian’s guide to Marketing and communications US: Wiley
Zerfass, A. (2008). Corporate communication revisited: Integrating business strategy and strategic communication. In A. Zerfass, B. Van Ruler, & K. Sriramesh (Eds.), Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations (pp. 65-96). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Zerfass, A., van Ruler, B., & Sriramesh, K. (Eds.). (2008). Public Relations Research: European and International Perspectives and Innovations. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften (Springer Science + Business Media).

ARTIGOS ACADÊMICOS E PAPÉIS DE CONFERÊNCIAS COMO REFERÊNCIA

Baskin, O., Hahn, J., Seaman, S., & Reines, D. (2010). Perceived effectiveness and implementation of public relations measurement and evaluation tools among European providers and consumers of PR services. Public Relations Review, 36, 105–111.

Distaso, M., McCorkindale, T., & Wright, D. (2011). How public relations executives perceive and measure the impact of social media in their organizations. Public Relations Review, 37(3), 325–328.

Available at:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251582796_How_public_relations_executives_perceive_and_measure_the_impact_of_social_media_in_their_organizations

Donsbach, W., & Brade, A. (2011). Nothing is as practical as a good theory: What communication research can offer to the practice of political communication. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16(4), 508–522,

Fairchild, M. (2006). Evaluating public relations: a best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. Journal of Communication Management, 10(1), 113–115. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/13632540210807125

Fleisher, C., & Mahaffy, D. (1997). A balanced scorecard approach to public relations management assessment. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 117–123.

Gregory, A. (2001). Public relations and evaluation: Does the reality match the rhetoric. Journal of Marketing Communications, 7, 171–189.

Gregory, A., & Watson, T. (2008). Defining the gap between research and practice in public relations programme evaluation: Towards a new research agenda. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(5), 337–350.

Lee, L., & Yoon, Y. (2010). Return on investment (ROI) of international public relations: A country-level analysis. Public Relations Review, 36(1), 15–20.

Lindenmann, W. (1990). Research, evaluation and measurement: A national perspective. Public Relations Review, 16(2), 3–16.

Lindenman, W. (1993). An ‘effectiveness yardstick’ to measure public relations success. Public Relations Quarterly, 38(1), 7–9.

Lindenmann, W. (1998). Only PR outcomes count: That is the real bottom line. Journal of Communication Management, 3(1), 66–73.

Macnamara, J. (1992). Evaluation of public relations: The Achilles Heel of the public relations profession. International Public Relations Review, 15(2), 19–25.

Macnamara, J. (2005). Media content analysis: Its uses, benefits and best practice methodology. Asia Pacific Public Relations Review, 6(1), 1–34. Available athttp://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Media-Content-Analysis-Paper.pdf

Macnamara, J. (2014). The ‘toe bone to the head bone’ logic model to connect PR and corporate communication to organization outcomes. PRism, 11(1), 1–15. Available athttp://www.prismjournal.org/homepage.html

Macnamara J. (2014). Emerging international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations: A critical analysis. Public Relations Inquiry, 3(1), 7–28.

Macnamara, J. (2015). Breaking the measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Journal of Communication Management, 19(4), 1–18.

Meng J., & Berger, B. (2012). Measuring return on investment (ROI) organizations’ internal communication effort. Journal of Communication Management, 16(4), 332–54.

Michaelson, D., & Stacks, D. (2011). Standardization in public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Journal, 5(2), 1–22.

Michaelson, D., Wright, D., & Stacks, D. (2012). Evaluating efficacy in public relations/corporate communication programming: Towards establishing standards of campaign performance. Public Relations Journal, 6(5), 1–24. Available at http://www.prsa.org/Intelligence/PRJournal/Vol6/No5/

Noble, P., & Watson, T. (1999). Applying a unified public relations evaluation model in a European context. Paper presented to Transnational Communication in Europe: Practice and Research International Congress, Berlin.

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (2013). Toward the establishment of ethical standardization in public relations research, measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Journal, 7(3), 1–28. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/prjournal/documents/2013_stacksbowen.pdf

Watson, T. (2005). ROI or evidence-based PR: The language of public relations evaluation. Prism, 3(1). Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/fileadmin/Praxis/Files/Journal_Files/Issue3/Watson.pdf

Watson, T. (2008). Public relations research priorities: A Delphi study. Journal of Communication Management, 12(2), 104–123.

Watson, T. (2012). The evolution of public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 390–398.

Watson, T., & Zerfass, A. (2011). Return on investment in public relations: A critique of concepts used by practitioners from communication and management sciences perspectives. PRism, 8(1), 1–14. Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/vol8_1.html

Xavier, R., Patel, A., Johnston, K., Watson, T., & Simmons, P. (2005). Using evaluation techniques and performance claims to demonstrate public relations impact: An Australian perspective. Public Relations Review, 31(3), 417–424.

Zerfass, A. (2009). Institutionalizing strategic communication: Theoretical analysis and empirical evidence. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 3, 69 –71.

Zerfass, A. (2010). Assuring rationality and transparency in corporate communications. Theoretical foundations and empirical findings on communication controlling and communication performance management. In M. Dodd & K. Yamamura (Eds.), Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World, 13th International Public Relations Research Conference (pp. 947–966). Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available athttp://iprrc.org/paperinfo_proceedings

ARTIGOS ONLINE E PROFISSIONAIS

Carroll, T., & Stacks, D. (2004). Bibliography of public relations measurement. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/PRM_Bibliography.pdf

Childers, L., & Grunig, J. (1999). Guidelines for measuring relationship in public relations. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available athttp://www.instituteforpr.org/measuring-relationships/

Eisenmann, M., O’Neil, J., & Geddes, D. (2015). An examination of the validity, reliability and best practice related to the standards for traditional media. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 2(1), 1–29. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/examination-validity-reliability-best-practices-related-standards-traditional-media/

European Commission. (2014, August). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available athttp://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Henningsen, A., Traverse Healy, K., Gregory, A. Johannsen, A., Allison, R., Bozeat, N., & Domaradzki, L. (2014, August 1). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Huhn, J., Sass, J., & Storck, C. (2011). Communication controlling: How to maximize and demonstrate the value creation through communication. Berlin, Germany: German Public Relations Association (DPRG). Available athttp://www.quadriga.eu/_files/downloads/2011-11-16_position-paper_com-controlling.pdf

Jeffrey, A. (2015). How to measure social media: Linking PR activities to target audience effects. The Measurement Standard, January 10. Available athttp://www.themeasurementstandard.com/2015/01/measure-social-media-choosing-tools-benchmarking

Likely, F. (2012). Principles for the use of return on investment (ROI), Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) financial metrics in a public relations/communication (PR/C) department. Paper presented to the 15th International Public Relations Research Conference, 8–10 March, Miami, FL. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/15th-IPRRC-Proceedings1.pdf

Likely, F., Rockland, D., & Weiner, M. (2006). Perspectives on the ROI of media relations publicity efforts. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available athttp://www.instituteforpr.org/research_single/perspectives_on_the_roi/

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Using research to measure the effectiveness of PR programs. Quirk’s Marketing Research. Retrieved from http://www.quirks.com/articles/a1997/19970204.aspx

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Guidelines and standards for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. PR Pundit. Available at http://prpundit.com/pdf/prTools/MeasuringandEvaluatingPREffectiveness.pdf

Lindenmann, W. (2001). Research doesn’t have to put you in the poorhouse. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/research-savings

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainsville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Retrievedhttp://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf (Original work published 1997)

Macnamara, J. (2014). Breaking the PR measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Paper presented to the AMEC Summit on Measurement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Available at http://amecorg.com/downloads/amsterdam2014/Breaking-the-PR-Measurement-Deadlock-A-New-Approach-and-Model-Jim-Macnamara.pdf

McCorkindale, T., DiStaso, M. (2014). The state of social media research: Where are we now, where we were and what it means for public relations. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 1(1), 1–17. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/state-social-media-research-now-means-public-relations

Sinickas, A. (2003). Focus on behaviour change to prove ROI. Strategic Communication Management, 7(6), 12–13. Available at http://www.sinicom.com/Sub%20Pages/pubs/articles/article58.pdf

Skelley, L., & Ziviani, M. (2012). Measuring PR performance across borders: How a global programme works. In PR Professionals Definitive Guide to Measurement, Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication, London, UK. Available at http://prguidetomeasurement.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Chapter-5-Laura-Skelley-Michael-Ziviani.pdf

Smith, B. (2008). Representing PR in the marketing mix: A study on public relations variables in marketing mix modelling. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available athttp://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/BG_SmithKetchum.pdf

Solis, B. (2010). ROI: How to measure return on investment in social media. @Brian Solis, 22 February. Available at http://www.briansolis.com/2010/02/roi-how-to-measure-return-on-investment-in-social-media

DPRG/ICV framework for communication controlling. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/positions/framework.html

European Commission. (2015, July). Toolkit for the evaluation of the communication activities. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Fairchild, M. (2001). The IPR toolkit: Planning, research and evaluation for public relations success (2nd ed.). London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

Fairchild, F., & O’Conner, N. (1999). The public relations research and evaluation toolkit: How to measure the effectiveness of PR. London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

GCS (Government Communication Service). (2015). Evaluation Framework. Cabin

OUTROS RECURSOS PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE RP E COMUNICAÇÃO

Geddes, D., Grunig, J., Likely, F., Lindenmann, W., Macleod, S., Macnamara, J. Mathes, R., Paine, K., Rockland, D., Stacks, D., & Watson, T. (2010). Thought leaders in PR measurement. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/resources/interviews/thought-leaders.html 

Institute for Public Relations Measurement Commission. (2015). Research and conversations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/center/ipr-measurement-center/

Melcrum. (2015). Measurement and evaluation. Web site resources for internal communication. Available at https://www.melcrum.com/internal-communication-measurement-evaluation

Paine Publishing. (n.d.). K. Paine (Publisher). Available at http://painepublishing.com/

Public Relations Society of America and American Statistical Association. (2011). Best Practices Guide for Use of Statistics in Public Relations. Available at http://amecorg.com/white-papers-and-reports/

Salience Insight and News International. (n.d.). B. Paarlberg (Ed.), The Measurement Standard. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/

LITERATURA DE AVALIAÇÃO EM OUTRAS DISCIPLINAS

Economía Comportamental/Insights comportamentais:

Behavioural Insights. (2015). [Web site]. London, UK. Available at http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk

 Psychology Today. (2015). [Web site]. Available at https://www.psychologytoday.com/topics/behavioral-economics

Samson, A., (Ed.). (2014). The behavioral economics guide 2014. Available at http://www.behavioraleconomics.com/BEGuide2014.pdf

Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Comunicação em saúde/ Promoção em saúde:

Bauman, A., & Nutbeam, D. (2014). Evaluation in a nutshell: A practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

Hornik, R. (Ed.). (2002). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kreps, G. (2014). Evaluating health communication programs to enhance health care and health promotion. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 19(12), 1449–1459.

O’Connor-Fleming, M., Parker, E., Higgins, H., & Gould, T. (2006). A framework for evaluating health promotion programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 17(1), 61–66. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/9440/1/9440.pdf

Rice, R., & Atkin, C. (Eds.). (2013). Public communication campaigns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shiavo, R. (2014). Planning, implementing, and evaluating a health communication intervention. In Health communication: From theory to practice (2nd ed., Part 3). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Teoria de Programa e Teoria de Mudança:

Anderson, A. (2005). The community builder’s approach to theory of change: A practical guide to theory and development. New York, NY: The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change.

Chen, H. (1990). Theory Driven Evaluations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Clark, H., & Taplin, D. (2012). Theory of change basics: A primer on theory of change. New York, NY: Actknowledge.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Lipsey, M., & Freeman, H. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wholey, J. (1987). Evaluability assessment: Developing program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 33, 77–92.

Program Evaluation: (See also ‘Program Logic Models’)

Barrett, F. (2013). Program evaluation: A step-by-step guide. Urbana, IL: Sunnycrest.

Boulmetis, J., & Dutwin, P. (2005). The ABCs of evaluation: Timeless techniques for program and project managers. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Freeman, H., & Lipsey, M. (2004). Evaluation. A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, C. (1972). Evaluative research: Methods of assessing program effectiveness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wholey, J. (1983). Evaluation and effective public management. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Wholey J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Yarbrough, B., Lyn, M., Shulha, H., Rodney K., & Caruthers, A. (2011). The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation Users (3rd ed.). Sage.

Modelos de Lógica de Programas:

Bennett, C. (1976). Analyzing impacts of extension programs, ESC-575.Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture Extension Service.

Fournier, D. (1995). Establishing evaluation conclusions: A distinction between general and working logic. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 68, 15–32.

Henert, E., & Taylor-Power, E. (2008). Developing a logic model: Teaching and training guide. Available at http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/pdf/lmguidecomplete.pdf

Julian, D. (1997). The utilization of the logic model as a system level planning and evaluation device. Evaluation and Program Planning, 20(3), 251–257.

Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: Author. Available at http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/pdf/eval-guides/logic-model-development-guide.pdf

Knowlton, L. & Phillips, C. (2013). The logic model guidebook: Better strategies for great results (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLaughlin, J., & Jordan, J. (1999). Logic models: a tool for telling your program’s performance story. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 65–72.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box.

Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

PCI (Practical Concepts, Inc.) (1979). The logical framework. A manager’s guide to a scientific approach to design & evaluation. Washington, DC. Available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnabn963.pdf

Rush, B., & Ogbourne A. (1991). Program logic models: Expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 6(2), 95–106.

Gestão de Desempenho:

Better Evaluation. (2015). An international collaboration to improve evaluation practice. Website resources. Available at http://betterevaluation.org/

Boardman, E., Greenberg, D., Vining, A., & Weimer, D. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis concepts and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2014). How CSIRO ensures it delivers impact. Sydney, NSW: Author. Available at http://www.csiro.au/en/About/Strategy-structure/Our-impact-framework

International Integrated Reporting Council. (2013). International Integrated Reporting Framework. London, UK. Available at http://www.theiirc.org/international-ir-framework

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992, January-February). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71–79.

Layard, R., & Glaister, S. (1994). Cost-benefit analysis (2nd ed). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Levin, H., & McEwan, P. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love, A. (1991). Internal evaluation: Building organizations from within. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mishan, E., & Quah, E. (2007). Cost-benefit analysis (5th ed.). Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Walsh, C. (2008). Key management ratios (4th ed.). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.

Marketing:

Content Marketing Framework: Measurement. (n.d.). Content Marketing Institute. Available at http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/measurement/

Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P., & Reibstein, D. (2010). Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Campanha de marketing:

Ver ‘Economia Comportamental / Insights’

Psicologia/Psicologia Social:

McGuire, W. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 136-314). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

McGuire, W. J. (2001). Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. In R. Rice & C. Atkin (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (3rd ed., pp. 22–48). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

See also ‘Engagement’ and ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Engajamento:

Macey, W., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.

Meyer, J., & Smith, C. (2000). HRM practices and organisational commitment: A test of a mediation model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Services, 17, 319–331.

 Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. Available http://www.psychology.uh.edu/faculty/Eisenberger/files/04_Affective_Commitment_to_the_Organization.pdf

Recursos Gerais de Avaliação:

American Evaluation Society – www.eval.org

Australasian Evaluation Society – www.aes.asn.au

Harvard Family Research Project, The Evaluation Exchange – www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/eval.html

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. In Research methods knowledge base. Available at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/evaluation.php 

United Kingdom Evaluation Society – http://www.evaluation.org.uk/

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