TERMINOLOGIE & SLOVNÍK TERMÍNŮ POUŽÍVANÝCH PRO MEŘENÍ A VÝZKUM V OBLASTI PR

Měření a analýzy jsou dnes součástí naprosté většiny diskuzí v oblasti businessu. Během své 20leté kariéry jsem nikdy nezažil tak obrovský zájem. Roste poptávka po produktech a službách firem, které se zabývají měřením komunikace či poskytují vlastní monitoringový servis. Podle zdrojů Ken Burbary je aktuálně na trhu takových subjektů přibližně 220 a toto číslo denně stoupá.

Fakt, že je na trhu velké množství dodavatelů těchto služeb, přitom způsobuje problémy. Velmi často se objevují rozdíly ve výsledcích měření podle toho či onoho poskytovatele. Dochází k aplikaci nevhodných či zcela nesprávných termínů a definicí. Například výrazy ‘OTS’, ‘readership’ (čtenost), ‘circulation’ (počet prodaných výtisků), nebo ‘audience reach’ (oslovení cílové skupiny) mají jiný význam, některé monitoringové společnosti je však vůbec nerozlišují. A podobných příkladů je celá řada, další takovou ukázkou je rozdíl mezi ‘hits’ a ‘page views’.

Pokud chceme tento problém vyřešit, je nutné abychom byli všichni upřímní a publikovali jen to, co je smysluplné a čemu sami věříme. Pokud chceme prosazovat jednotné standardy v rámci celého odvětví a navenek demonstrovat konzistentní a důvěryhodné přístupy k měření, musíme nejdříve sjednotit používané postupy a terminologii.

Naši přátelé z IPR (Institute of Public Relations) vytvořili nástroj, který nám k tomu skvěle poslouží. Slovník s názvem ‘Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement & Research’ vypracovala dvojice Don Stacks a Shannon Bowen a najdete v něm důkladně a jasně vypracované definice všem používaných termínů a jejich použití. Je dostupný ke stažení zde.

GUIDELINES FOR SETTING MEASURABLE PR OBJECTIVES

Americký institut IPR (Institute for Public Relations) v nedávné době publikoval aktualizovanou verzi Bílé knihy s názvem “Guidelines for Setting Measurable Public Relations Objectives”.

Hned na začátku tohoto průvodce se dozvíme, že před spuštěním jakékoliv PR aktivity je naprosto nezbytné nastavit si jasné a měřitelné cíle. Ty přitom musí být v souladu se strategickými cíli organizace a měly by být současně měřitelné, specifické, dosažitelné, relevantní a časově vymezené. Před spuštěním každé kampaně je nutné si jasně říci, kam míříme a čeho chceme dosáhnout.
Při měření efektivity komunikace nestačí pouze kvantifikovat výstupy. PR je třeba chápat jako prostředek k ovlivnění toho, jak naši značku vnímá veřejnost.

Bílá kniha, kterou vytvořili pracovníci IPR, poskytuje k tomuto důležitému tématu mnohem více informací. K její publikaci významně přispěli členové Measurement Commission IPR, jmenovitě Forrest W. Anderson, Planning & Evaluation Consultant, Linda Hadley, Senior Vice President, Research, Porter Novelli, David Rockland, Partner & CEO, Ketchum Global Research & Analytics, a Mark Weiner, CEO, PRIME Research Americas.
Plný text „
Guidelines for Setting Measurable Public Relations Objectives” je dostupný ke stažení zde.

UŽITEČNÉ ZDROJE PRO PRÁCI S INTEGROVANÝM HODNOTÍCÍM RÁMCEM

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Tradiční médiaBARB – Broadcast Audience Research BoarSbírá data o využití u jednotlivých komunikačních kanálů a programů a analyzuje počet shlédnutých příspěvků na týdenní, měsíční a čtvrtletní bázi.barb.co.uk
JICREG – Joint Industry Committee for Regional Media ResearchZprávy z regionálního tisku a webových stránek – výstupy zahrnují průměrnou čtenost, demografické údaje včetně věku, pohlaví a socioekonomického postavení. jiab.jicreg.co.uk
MediatelMediatel shromažďuje informace ze světa médií, nabízí různé postřehy a novinky z trhu, konference apod. mediatel.co.uk/
Newspaper SocietyPoskytuje omezené informace o čtenosti a informačním dosahu.newsmediauk.org
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience ResearchRAJAR sleduje na čtvrtletní bázi počet posluchačů lokálních rádio stanic, dosah konkrétního média a průměrnou dobu poslechu. Reporty obsahují také grafické porovnání využití tradičních vysílačů a digitálních platforem.nrs.co.uk
Sociální a digitální médiaAlexaZdroj provozních dat z webových stránek.alexa.com
BacktweetsVyhledávání odkazů na Twitterubacktweets.com
BitlyUžitečný nástroj pro zkracování URL adres, který poskytuje i související analytické údaje jako je historie kliknutí a sdílení přes Facebook nebo Twitter.bitly.com
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Twitter AnalyticsAnalýza interakcí s vaším účtemanalytics.twitter.com
Placená médiaIAB – Internet Advertising BureauNa webu IAB najdete data a infografiky z různých odvětví včetně glosáře slangových výrazů používaných v průzkumech.iabuk.net
IPA – Institute of Practitioners in AdvertisingNa stránkách institutu IPA naleznete tipy a osvědčené praktiky pro reklamní kampaně.ipa.co.uk
NetvibesDashboard řešení pro reklamní, sociální, mediální a PR agenturynetvibes.com
Výzkum trhuEventbriteNástroj, který umožňuje propagovat události, vytvářet k nim pozvánky a registrace, sledovat návštěvnost nebo získávat zpětnou vazbu od účastníků.eventbrite.co.uk
Mail Chimp
Nástroj pro spravování a sledování e-mailové komunikacemailchimp.com
Market Research Society
Market Research Society (MRS) je světově významná výzkumná asociace. Zprostředkovává užitečná data pro všechny pracovníky ve veřejném i soukromém sektoru, kteří se nějakým způsobem podílí na rozhodování a tvorbě strategií.mrs.org.uk
PolldaddyNástroj pro online průzkumpolldaddy.com
Smart SurveyNástroj pro online průzkumsmartsurvey.co.uk
Survey MonkeyNástroj pro online průzkumsurveymonkey.co.uk
Business insights and data visualisationMicrosoft BIMicrosoft Power BI vytváří z dat bohaté vizuálypowerbi.microsoft.com
TableauNástroj pro vizualizaci dat z různých zdrojůtableau.com
PiktochartTvorba infografikpiktochart.com
PreziPrezentační softwareprezi.com
RůznéAMECWebové stránky AMEC obsahují nepřeberné množství zdrojů souvisejících s analýzou a měřením, a to včetně tipů a osvědčených praktik, případových studií nebo seznamu poskytovatelů různých měřících nástrojů a služeb.amecorg.com/resource-centre
CIPRInstitut CIPR nabízí množství měřících nástrojů a zdrojů, jako je např. Social Media Measurement Guide a Guide to Social Media Monitoring.cipr.co.uk
data.gov.ukData a reporty z veřejného sektoru. Funkce ‘Publication Type’ v levé části stránky slouží k upřesnění vyhledávání v různých statistikách, analýzách a průzkumech.gov.uk
ICCOInternational Communications Consultancy Organisation (ICCO) je celosvětová organizace sdružující konzultingové společnosti z oblasti public relations.iccopr.com
IPRInstitute for Public Relations je nezisková organizace, která se specializuje na výzkum v oblasti public relations.instituteforpr.org
Neighbourhood StatisticsTato stránka vám bude velmi nápomocná, pokud pracujete na projektu s regionálním zaměřením.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk
OFCOM – the communications regulatorStránky OFCOM obsahují statistiky o vlastnictví a využívání televizních a rozhlasových přijímačů a pevných/mobilních telefonů.ofcom.org
ONS – Office for National StatisticsONS poskytuje množství dat (včetně dat ze Sčítání lidu, domů a bytů z roku 2011), které mohou být roztříděny abecedně nebo podle tématu. Nabízí také službu Nomis – bezplatný přístup k oficiálním, detailním a nejaktuálnějším statistikám z britského pracovního trhu UK. ons.gov.uk/ons
PRCAAsociace PRCA se zabývá všemi aspekty public relations i interní komunikací v organizacích. Pomáhá týmům i jednotlivcům zlepšovat kvalitu výstupů, které doručují klientům.prca.org.uk

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DOPLŇUJÍCÍ STUDIE / BIBLIOGRAFIE

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Smith, B. (2008). Representing PR in the marketing mix: A study on public relations variables in marketing mix modelling. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/BG_SmithKetchum.pdf

Solis, B. (2010). ROI: How to measure return on investment in social media. @Brian Solis, 22 February. Available at http://www.briansolis.com/2010/02/roi-how-to-measure-return-on-investment-in-social-media

DPRG/ICV framework for communication controlling. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/positions/framework.html

European Commission. (2015, July). Toolkit for the evaluation of the communication activities. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Fairchild, M. (2001). The IPR toolkit: Planning, research and evaluation for public relations success (2nd ed.). London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

Fairchild, F., & O’Conner, N. (1999). The public relations research and evaluation toolkit: How to measure the effectiveness of PR. London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

GCS (Government Communication Service). (2015). Evaluation Framework. Cabinet Office, Whitehall, London, UK. Available at https://gcs.civilservice.gov.uk/guidance/evaluation/tools-and-resources

IPRA (International Public Relations Association). (1994). Public relations evaluation: Professional accountability, Gold Paper No. 11, November. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

Lindenman, W. (1997). Guidelines for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf . (Revised version of original work 1997)

Lindenmann, W. (2006). Public Relations Research for Planning and Evaluation. Resource booklet. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2006_Planning_Eval.pdf

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Principles on best practice in research, measurement, and evaluation in public relations. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6726

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Media and social media content analysis guidelines. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6727

Public Relations Society of America. (2014). Measurement resources. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/businesscase/measurementresources

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (Eds.). (2013). Dictionary of public relations measurement and research. Gainesville FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/dictionary-of-public-relations-measurement-and-research/ 

RESEARCH REPORTS

Macnamara, J. (2014). The development of international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations and corporate communication: A review. Sydney, NSW: Australian Centre for Public Communication, University of Technology Sydney. Available at https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/acpc-pr-measurement-and-evaluation-review.pdf

Wright, D., Gaunt, R., Leggetter, B., Daniels, M., & Zerfass, A. (2009). Global survey of communications measurement 2009 – final report. London, UK: Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Global-Survey-Communications_Measurement-20091.pdf

Zerfass, A., Verčič, D., Verhoeven, P., Moreno, A., & Tench, R. (2015). European communication monitor 2015. Brussels, Belgium: European Association for Communication Directors (EACD) and European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) in association with Helios Media, Berlin. Available at http://www.zerfass.de/ECM-WEBSITE/media/ECM2015-Results-ChartVersion.pdf

OTHER RESOURCES FOR PR AND COMMUNICATION EVALUATION

Geddes, D., Grunig, J., Likely, F., Lindenmann, W., Macleod, S., Macnamara, J. Mathes, R., Paine, K., Rockland, D., Stacks, D., & Watson, T. (2010). Thought leaders in PR measurement. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/resources/interviews/thought-leaders.html 

Institute for Public Relations Measurement Commission. (2015). Research and conversations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/center/ipr-measurement-center/

Melcrum. (2015). Measurement and evaluation. Web site resources for internal communication. Available at https://www.melcrum.com/internal-communication-measurement-evaluation

Paine Publishing. (n.d.). K. Paine (Publisher). Available at http://painepublishing.com/

Public Relations Society of America and American Statistical Association. (2011). Best Practices Guide for Use of Statistics in Public Relations. Available at http://amecorg.com/white-papers-and-reports/

Salience Insight and News International. (n.d.). B. Paarlberg (Ed.), The Measurement Standard. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/

EVALUATION LITERATURE IN OTHER DISCIPLINES

Behavioural Economics / Behavioural Insights:

Behavioural Insights. (2015). [Web site]. London, UK. Available at http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk

 Psychology Today. (2015). [Web site]. Available at https://www.psychologytoday.com/topics/behavioral-economics

Samson, A., (Ed.). (2014). The behavioral economics guide 2014. Available at http://www.behavioraleconomics.com/BEGuide2014.pdf

Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Health Communication / Health Promotion:

Bauman, A., & Nutbeam, D. (2014). Evaluation in a nutshell: A practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

Hornik, R. (Ed.). (2002). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kreps, G. (2014). Evaluating health communication programs to enhance health care and health promotion. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 19(12), 1449–1459.

O’Connor-Fleming, M., Parker, E., Higgins, H., & Gould, T. (2006). A framework for evaluating health promotion programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 17(1), 61–66. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/9440/1/9440.pdf

Rice, R., & Atkin, C. (Eds.). (2013). Public communication campaigns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shiavo, R. (2014). Planning, implementing, and evaluating a health communication intervention. In Health communication: From theory to practice (2nd ed., Part 3). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Program Theory and Theory of Change:

Anderson, A. (2005). The community builder’s approach to theory of change: A practical guide to theory and development. New York, NY: The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change.

Chen, H. (1990). Theory Driven Evaluations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Clark, H., & Taplin, D. (2012). Theory of change basics: A primer on theory of change. New York, NY: Actknowledge.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Lipsey, M., & Freeman, H. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wholey, J. (1987). Evaluability assessment: Developing program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 33, 77–92.

Program Evaluation: (See also ‘Program Logic Models’)

Barrett, F. (2013). Program evaluation: A step-by-step guide. Urbana, IL: Sunnycrest.

Boulmetis, J., & Dutwin, P. (2005). The ABCs of evaluation: Timeless techniques for program and project managers. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Freeman, H., & Lipsey, M. (2004). Evaluation. A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, C. (1972). Evaluative research: Methods of assessing program effectiveness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wholey, J. (1983). Evaluation and effective public management. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Wholey J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Yarbrough, B., Lyn, M., Shulha, H., Rodney K., & Caruthers, A. (2011). The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation Users (3rd ed.). Sage.

Program Logic Models:

Bennett, C. (1976). Analyzing impacts of extension programs, ESC-575.Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture Extension Service.

Fournier, D. (1995). Establishing evaluation conclusions: A distinction between general and working logic. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 68, 15–32.

Henert, E., & Taylor-Power, E. (2008). Developing a logic model: Teaching and training guide. Available at http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/pdf/lmguidecomplete.pdf

Julian, D. (1997). The utilization of the logic model as a system level planning and evaluation device. Evaluation and Program Planning, 20(3), 251–257.

Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: Author. Available at http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/pdf/eval-guides/logic-model-development-guide.pdf

Knowlton, L. & Phillips, C. (2013). The logic model guidebook: Better strategies for great results (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLaughlin, J., & Jordan, J. (1999). Logic models: a tool for telling your program’s performance story. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 65–72.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box.

Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

PCI (Practical Concepts, Inc.) (1979). The logical framework. A manager’s guide to a scientific approach to design & evaluation. Washington, DC. Available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnabn963.pdf

Rush, B., & Ogbourne A. (1991). Program logic models: Expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 6(2), 95–106.

Performance Management:

Better Evaluation. (2015). An international collaboration to improve evaluation practice. Website resources. Available at http://betterevaluation.org/

Boardman, E., Greenberg, D., Vining, A., & Weimer, D. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis concepts and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2014). How CSIRO ensures it delivers impact. Sydney, NSW: Author. Available at http://www.csiro.au/en/About/Strategy-structure/Our-impact-framework

International Integrated Reporting Council. (2013). International Integrated Reporting Framework. London, UK. Available at http://www.theiirc.org/international-ir-framework

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992, January-February). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71–79.

Layard, R., & Glaister, S. (1994). Cost-benefit analysis (2nd ed). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Levin, H., & McEwan, P. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love, A. (1991). Internal evaluation: Building organizations from within. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mishan, E., & Quah, E. (2007). Cost-benefit analysis (5th ed.). Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Walsh, C. (2008). Key management ratios (4th ed.). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.

Marketing:

Content Marketing Framework: Measurement. (n.d.). Content Marketing Institute. Available at http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/measurement/

Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P., & Reibstein, D. (2010). Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Nudge Marketing:

See ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Psychology/Social Psychology:

McGuire, W. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 136-314). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

McGuire, W. J. (2001). Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. In R. Rice & C. Atkin (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (3rd ed., pp. 22–48). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

See also ‘Engagement’ and ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Engagement:

Macey, W., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.

Meyer, J., & Smith, C. (2000). HRM practices and organisational commitment: A test of a mediation model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Services, 17, 319–331.

 Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. Available http://www.psychology.uh.edu/faculty/Eisenberger/files/04_Affective_Commitment_to_the_Organization.pdf

General Evaluation Resources:

American Evaluation Society – www.eval.org

Australasian Evaluation Society – www.aes.asn.au

Harvard Family Research Project, The Evaluation Exchange – www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/eval.html

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. In Research methods knowledge base. Available at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/evaluation.php 

United Kingdom Evaluation Society – http://www.evaluation.org.uk/

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