ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЈА И РЕЧНИК НА ПР МЕРЕЊЕ И ИСТРАЖУВАЊЕ

Анализите и согледувањата се жешка бизнис тема на денешницата. Во текот на моето 20 годишно работно искуство во областа на мерењето на комуникациите, никогаш не наидов на поголем интерес за оваа тема. Оваа побарувачка создаде наплив на нови и стари компании кои нудат најразлични алатки, решенија и услуги за следење и оценка на комуникациите. Според Кен Бурбари постојат повеќе од 200 компании кои ги нудат овие видови на услуги и нивниот број секојдневно се зголемува.

Овој голем број на потенцијални снабдувачи со различни нивоа на искуство може да предизвика проблеми. Еден од нив е недостатокот на конзистентност во резултатите при мерење на истата кампања од страна на двајца различни давателите на услуги. Еден од клучните проблеми е фактот што честопати давателите на услуги користат погрешни термини и дефиниции. На пример, „читатели“, „тираж“ и „дофат на публика“ се различни поими, но во некои случаи се користат наизменично од страна на давателите на услуги. Постојат и многу други примери за ваков вид на проблеми, на пример – „погодоци“ и „прегледи на страници“, има некој кој ќе ја посочи разликата?

Како индустрија, ако сакаме да се реши ова прашање, од исклучително значење е сите ние да го кажеме она што го мислиме, и да го мислиме она што го кажуваме. Бидејќи индистријата бара да се постават стандарди и да се демонстрираат конзистентни, веродостојни пристапи во однос на мерењето, ние најнапред мора да востановиме доследна, правилна и точна терминологија.

Нашите пријатели во IPR создадоа одличен ресурс кој ќе и помогне да индустријата да го постигне токму тоа. Изданието „Речник на ПР мерење и истражување“ внимателно го објаснува секој поим во општа употреба и обезбедува негова јасна дефиниција. Уредено од Дон Стакс и Шанон Бовен, „Речник на ПР мерење и истражување“ е достапен да се даунлодира тука.

УПАТСТВА ЗА ПОСТАВУВАЊЕ МЕРЛИВИ ПР ЦЕЛИ

Институтот за односи со јавност – IPR со седиште во САД (за разлика од ПР трговската асоцијација на Велика Британија, CIPR), ја ажурираше својата одлична бела книга „Упатства за поставување на мерливи ПР цели“.

Поставувањето на мерливи цели на почетокот на секоја ПР активност е од фундаментално значење. Комуникациските цели треба да ги поддржуваат целите на организацијата. Тие треба да се „SMART“: специфични, мерливи, остварливи, релевантни и временски ограничени. Тие треба да бидат утврдени однапред во однос на било која работа со јасен показател за тоа кој ќе биде крајниот успех. Комуникациските цели треба да бидат повеќе од едноствно набројување на активностите, туку тие треба да ги поврзат комуникациските активности со промените и новините во ставовите и однесувањето и ултимативно, да постигнат организациско влијание.

Одличната бела книга на IPR обезбедува многу повеќе информации за ова круцијално важна тема. Автор од белата книга е Комисијата за мерење на IPR, промовирана од Форест В. Андерсон, консултант за планирање и евалуација, Линда Хедли, постар заменик претседател во делот за истражување, компанијата Porter Novelli, Дејвид Рокланд, партнер и извршен директор на Ketchum Global Research & Analytics и Марк Вејнер, извршен директор на PRIME Research Americas.

Белата книга  „Упатства за поставување на мерливи ПР цели“ може да се превземе тука.

КОРИСНИ РЕСУРСИ ЗА КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ИНТЕГРИРАНАТА РАМКА

КАТЕГОРИЈАОРГАНИЗАЦИЈАТИП НА ПОДАТОЦИЛИНК
Традиционални медиумиBARB – Broadcast Audience Research BoarОвозможува гледање на податоци на неделна, месечна и квартална основа. Вклучува податоци за канали, програми и прегледувања.barb.co.uk
JICREG – Joint Industry Committee for Regional Media ResearchОбезбедува весници и веб извештаи за регионалните медиуми по регион.Во извештаите се опфатени просекот на читаност по издание и демографички параметри како возраст, пол и социјално економски квалификации.jiab.jicreg.co.uk
MediatelМедиател е медиумска индустриска дестинација за податоци на медиумите, алатки за планирање, увид во пазарот, вести и конференцииmediatel.co.uk/
Newspaper SocietyОва има ограничени информации за читателската публика и покриеност.newsmediauk.org
NRS – National Readership SurveyОбезбедува проценка за читаноста на националните и регионалните весници, општи списанија и шенски списанија и трендовите на читаност и тираж.nrs.co.uk
RAJAR – Radio Joint Audience ResearchОбезбедува квартални податоци за слушање за национални и локални радио станици, вклучувајќи досег и просечен број на часови на слушање по слушател. Вклучува инфографици на радио слушање и дигитални платформи. rajar.co.uk
Социјални / дигитални медиумиAlexaИзвор на податоци за веб сообраќај.alexa.com
BacktweetsПребарува линкови на Твитерbacktweets.com
BitlyОва е алатка која овозможува скратен URL и може да достави придружни анализи, како што се историја на кликови и споделувања преку Фејсбук и Твитер.bitly.com
BufferВи овозможува да оперирате со сообраќајот, да го зголемите ангажманот и да заштедите време на социјалните мрежиbuffer.com
Facebook InsightsАнализа на интеракција со вашиот профилfacebook.com/help/search/?q=insights
Google AlertsОбезбедува редовни известувања за нови нешта на веб страниците, блоговите и обезбедува содржина од истражувањето врз основа на критериумите за пребарувањеgoogle.co.uk/alerts
Google AnalyticsАнализа на веб страницатаgoogle.co.uk/analytics
Google News SearchАгрегирани наслови и пребарувач за многу сервиси со вестиnews.google.co.uk
Google TrendsИстражува трендови за тоа што луѓето пребаруваат на Гуглgoogle.co.uk/trends
HootsuiteАлатка за планирање и менаџирање за социјални медиумиhootsuite.com
KredРезултат и платформа за подобрување на вашето влијаниеhome.kred
LinkedIn AnalyticsАнализа на интеракција со индивидуалните сметкиlinkedin.com/help
Social BakersУвид во управувани податоци од социјалните медиумиsocialbakers.com
SocialmentionПребарување и анализа на социјалните медиуми во реално времеsocialmention.com
ThunderclapThunderclap е “публиката заборува“ платформа која им овозможува на поединци и компании да соберат луѓе заедно да ја распространат пораката. thunderclap.it
TraackrИдентификација на влијанието и менаџмент платформаtraackr.com
TweetdeckАлатка за твитер ангажманtweetdeck.twitter.com
TweriodTweriod ти дава најдобро време за твитање.tweriod.com
Twitter AnalyticsАнализа на интеракција со вашиот профилanalytics.twitter.com
Платени медиуми
IAB – Internet Advertising BureauВеб страницата IAB вклучува жаргон бастер во делот со ресурси, и карактеризира податоци и инфографици за одредени сектори. iabuk.net
IPA – Institute of Practitioners in AdvertisingIPA веб страницата вклучува и Најдобар Водич за Пракса при евалуација на адвертајзинг кампањите ipa.co.uk
NetvibesРешение за контролна табла за агенциите кои се занимаваат со адвертајзинг, со социјални медиуми и со односи со јавностаnetvibes.com
Истражување на пазаротEventbriteАлатка која ви овозможува промоција, менаџирање на покани, регистрација на настани со можност да се следи одговорот и внесот во текот на денот.eventbrite.co.uk
Mail Chimp
Алатка која се користи за креирање, испраѓање и следење на е-маил сообраќајот. mailchimp.com
Market Research Society
Друштво за истражување на пазарот The Market Research Society (MRS) е светска водечка истражувачка асоцијација. За сите оние кои имаа потреба, користат, генерираат или ги интерпретираат доказите кои се од суштинско значење за добро одлучување при креирање на комерцијални и јавни политики. mrs.org.uk
PolldaddyОнлајн алатка за истражувањеpolldaddy.com
Smart SurveyОнлајн алатка за истражувањеsmartsurvey.co.uk
Survey MonkeyОнлајн алатка за истражувањеsurveymonkey.co.uk
Сознанија во бизнисот и визуелизација на податоциMicrosoft BIMicrosoft Power BI го претвора податоците во богати визуелни елементиpowerbi.microsoft.com
TableauАлатка за визуелизација на податоците од различни извориtableau.com
PiktochartАлатка за правење инфографикpiktochart.com
PreziСофтвер за презентацијаprezi.com
РазноAMECВеб страница за мерење и анализа на ресурси вклучувајќи и листа на провајдери за мерење, најдобра пракса и студии на случај. amecorg.com/resource-centre
CIPRCIPR има најголем број на ресурси вклучувајќи ги и Водичот за Мерење на Социјални Медиуми и Водичот за Мониторинг на Социјални Медиуми. cipr.co.uk
data.gov.ukГи обединува податоците од секторите на централната власт и голем број на тела од јавниот сектор и локалните власти во една веб страница која може да се пребарува. gov.uk
ICCOОрганизацијата за Меѓународен Комуникациски Консалтинг (ICCO) е гласот за консултации при односите со јавност во светот. iccopr.com
IPRИнститутот за односи со јавност е непрофитна фондација која е посветена на истражување во, на и за односи со јавноста.instituteforpr.org
Neighbourhood StatisticsАко работите на проект кој е повеќе локален или регионален, тогаш оваа веб страница ви нуди богатство од информации. neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk
OFCOM – the communications regulatorВеб-страницата OFCOM вклучува податоци за сопственоста и употребата на телевизијата, дигиталното радио и фиксните/мобилни телефони. ofcom.org
ONS – Office for National StatisticsБогатство од податоци (вклучувајќи ги и податоците од Пописот во 2011 година) кои можат да се пребаруваат по тема или по азбучен ред, наместо да знаете какво истражување да барате. Nomis е услуга обезбедена од страна на Канцеларијата за национална статистика, ONS, за да ви даде бесплатен пристап до повеќето детални и апдејтувани статистики за пазарот на труд во велика Бротанија од официјални извори.ons.gov.uk/ons
PRCAPRCA ги промовира сите аспекти од односите со јавност и работата на внатрешната комуникација, помагајќи им на тимовите и поединците да ја максимизираат вредноста која ја испорачуваат на клиентите и организациите. prca.org.uk

Case Studies

FRAMEWORK CASE STUDIES:

THE STROKE ASSOCIATIONDOWNLOAD

NHS BLOOD & TRANSPLANTDOWNLOAD

STONER SLOTHDOWNLOAD

WHO REALLY WON CHRISTMAS?DOWNLOAD

THE SOCIAL PR VIRTUOSODOWNLOAD

FURTHER READING / BIBLIOGRAPHY

Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2011). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications (2nd ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Blanchard, O. (2011). Social media ROI: Managing and measuring social media efforts in your organization. Indianapolis, IN: Que; Boston, MA: Pearson.

Brody, E., & Stone, G. (1989). Public relations research. New York, NY: Praeger.

Broom, G., & Dozier, D. (1990). Using research in public relations: Applications to program management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Broom, G., & Macnamara, J. (2009). Evaluating the program. In G. Broom, Cutlip & Center’s effective public relations (10th ed., pp. 349–376). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Devereaux Ferguson, S. (1999). Constructing a theoretical framework for evaluating public relations programs and activities. In M. Roloff (Ed.). Communication yearbook 21 (pp. 191–229). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ehling, W. (1992). Estimating the value of public relations and communication to an organization. In J. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in public relations and communication management (pp. 617–638). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gregory A., & White, J. (2008). Introducing the Chartered Institute of Public Relations initiative: Moving on from talking about evaluation to incorporating it into better management of the practice. In B. van Ruler, A. Verčič, & D. Verčič (Eds.), Public relations metrics, research and evaluation (pp. 307–317). New York, NY: Routledge.

Grunig, J. (2008). Conceptualizing quantitative research in public relations. In B. van Ruler, A. Verčič, & D. Verčič (Eds.), Public relations metrics, research and evaluation (pp. 88–119). New York, NY: Routledge.

Grunig, L., Grunig, J., & Dozier, D. (2002). Excellent organizations and effective organizations: A study of communication management in three countries. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Li, C., & Stacks, D. (2015). Measuring the impact of social media on business profit and success. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Likely, F., & Watson, T. (2013). Measuring the edifice: Public relations measurement and evaluation practice over the course of 40 years. In K. Sriramesh, A. Zerfass, & J. Kim, (Eds.), Public relations and communication management: Current trends and emerging topics (pp. 143–162). New York, NY: Routledge. Available at http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/20494/

Macnamara, J. (2002). Research and evaluation. In C. Tymson & P. Lazar, The new Australian and New Zealand public relations manual (21st Century ed., pp. 100–134). Sydney, NSW: Tymson Communications.

Macnamara, J. (2012). Public Relations Theory, Practice, Critiques. Sydney, NSW: Pearson.

Paine, KD (2011) Measure What Matters: Online Tools For Understanding Customers, Social Media, Engagement, and Key Relationships.  Wiley

Pavlik, J. (1987). Public relations: What research tells us. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Shelddrake, P (2011) The Business of Influence: Reframing marketing and PR for the digital age Wiley.

Stacks, D. (2011). Primer of public relations research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guildford Press.

Stacks, D., & Michaelson, D. (2010). A practitioner’s guide to public relations research, measurement, and evaluation. New York, NY: Business Experts Press.

Stacks, D., & Watson, M. (2007). Two-way communication based on quantitative research and measurement. In E. Toth (Ed.), The future of excellence in public relations and communication management: Challenges for the next generation (pp. 67–84). Mahwah, NJ; Lawrence Erlbaum.

Theaker, A. (2012). The public relations handbook (4th ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.  van Ruler, B., Verčič, A., & Verčič, D. (Eds.). (2008). Public relations metrics: Research and evaluation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Watson, T. (1996). New models for evaluating public relations practice. In B. Baerns & J. Klewes (Eds.), Jahrbuch public relations (pp. 50–62). Dusseldorf: Econ Verlag.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2005). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2007). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation (2nd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2014). Evaluating Public Relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation (3rd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.

Weiner, Mark (2006) Unleashing the Power of PR: A contrarian’s guide to Marketing and communications US: Wiley

Zerfass, A. (2008). Corporate communication revisited: Integrating business strategy and strategic communication. In A. Zerfass, B. Van Ruler, & K. Sriramesh (Eds.), Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations (pp. 65-96). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Zerfass, A., van Ruler, B., & Sriramesh, K. (Eds.). (2008). Public Relations Research: European and International Perspectives and Innovations. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften (Springer Science + Business Media).

ACADEMIC ARTICLES AND REFEREED CONFERENCE PAPERS

Baskin, O., Hahn, J., Seaman, S., & Reines, D. (2010). Perceived effectiveness and implementation of public relations measurement and evaluation tools among European providers and consumers of PR services. Public Relations Review, 36, 105–111.

Distaso, M., McCorkindale, T., & Wright, D. (2011). How public relations executives perceive and measure the impact of social media in their organizations. Public Relations Review, 37(3), 325–328.

Available at:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251582796_How_public_relations_executives_perceive_and_measure_the_impact_of_social_media_in_their_organizations

Donsbach, W., & Brade, A. (2011). Nothing is as practical as a good theory: What communication research can offer to the practice of political communication. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16(4), 508–522,

Fairchild, M. (2006). Evaluating public relations: a best practice guide to public relations planning, research and evaluation. Journal of Communication Management, 10(1), 113–115. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/13632540210807125

Fleisher, C., & Mahaffy, D. (1997). A balanced scorecard approach to public relations management assessment. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 117–123.

Gregory, A. (2001). Public relations and evaluation: Does the reality match the rhetoric. Journal of Marketing Communications, 7, 171–189.

Gregory, A., & Watson, T. (2008). Defining the gap between research and practice in public relations programme evaluation: Towards a new research agenda. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(5), 337–350.

Lee, L., & Yoon, Y. (2010). Return on investment (ROI) of international public relations: A country-level analysis. Public Relations Review, 36(1), 15–20.

Lindenmann, W. (1990). Research, evaluation and measurement: A national perspective. Public Relations Review, 16(2), 3–16.

Lindenman, W. (1993). An ‘effectiveness yardstick’ to measure public relations success. Public Relations Quarterly, 38(1), 7–9.

Lindenmann, W. (1998). Only PR outcomes count: That is the real bottom line. Journal of Communication Management, 3(1), 66–73.

Macnamara, J. (1992). Evaluation of public relations: The Achilles Heel of the public relations profession. International Public Relations Review, 15(2), 19–25.

Macnamara, J. (2005). Media content analysis: Its uses, benefits and best practice methodology. Asia Pacific Public Relations Review, 6(1), 1–34. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Media-Content-Analysis-Paper.pdf

Macnamara, J. (2014). The ‘toe bone to the head bone’ logic model to connect PR and corporate communication to organization outcomes. PRism, 11(1), 1–15. Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/homepage.html

Macnamara J. (2014). Emerging international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations: A critical analysis. Public Relations Inquiry, 3(1), 7–28.

Macnamara, J. (2015). Breaking the measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Journal of Communication Management, 19(4), 1–18.

Meng J., & Berger, B. (2012). Measuring return on investment (ROI) organizations’ internal communication effort. Journal of Communication Management, 16(4), 332–54.

Michaelson, D., & Stacks, D. (2011). Standardization in public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Journal, 5(2), 1–22.

Michaelson, D., Wright, D., & Stacks, D. (2012). Evaluating efficacy in public relations/corporate communication programming: Towards establishing standards of campaign performance. Public Relations Journal, 6(5), 1–24. Available at http://www.prsa.org/Intelligence/PRJournal/Vol6/No5/

Noble, P., & Watson, T. (1999). Applying a unified public relations evaluation model in a European context. Paper presented to Transnational Communication in Europe: Practice and Research International Congress, Berlin.

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (2013). Toward the establishment of ethical standardization in public relations research, measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Journal, 7(3), 1–28. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/prjournal/documents/2013_stacksbowen.pdf

Watson, T. (2005). ROI or evidence-based PR: The language of public relations evaluation. Prism, 3(1). Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/fileadmin/Praxis/Files/Journal_Files/Issue3/Watson.pdf

Watson, T. (2008). Public relations research priorities: A Delphi study. Journal of Communication Management, 12(2), 104–123.

Watson, T. (2012). The evolution of public relations measurement and evaluation. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 390–398.

Watson, T., & Zerfass, A. (2011). Return on investment in public relations: A critique of concepts used by practitioners from communication and management sciences perspectives. PRism, 8(1), 1–14. Available at http://www.prismjournal.org/vol8_1.html

Xavier, R., Patel, A., Johnston, K., Watson, T., & Simmons, P. (2005). Using evaluation techniques and performance claims to demonstrate public relations impact: An Australian perspective. Public Relations Review, 31(3), 417–424.

Zerfass, A. (2009). Institutionalizing strategic communication: Theoretical analysis and empirical evidence. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 3, 69 –71.

Zerfass, A. (2010). Assuring rationality and transparency in corporate communications. Theoretical foundations and empirical findings on communication controlling and communication performance management. In M. Dodd & K. Yamamura (Eds.), Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World, 13th International Public Relations Research Conference (pp. 947–966). Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://iprrc.org/paperinfo_proceedings

ONLINE ARTICLES AND PROFESSIONAL PAPERS

Carroll, T., & Stacks, D. (2004). Bibliography of public relations measurement. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/PRM_Bibliography.pdf

Childers, L., & Grunig, J. (1999). Guidelines for measuring relationship in public relations. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/measuring-relationships/

Eisenmann, M., O’Neil, J., & Geddes, D. (2015). An examination of the validity, reliability and best practice related to the standards for traditional media. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 2(1), 1–29. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/examination-validity-reliability-best-practices-related-standards-traditional-media/

European Commission. (2014, August). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Henningsen, A., Traverse Healy, K., Gregory, A. Johannsen, A., Allison, R., Bozeat, N., & Domaradzki, L. (2014, August 1). Measuring the European Commission’s communication: Technical and methodological report. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Huhn, J., Sass, J., & Storck, C. (2011). Communication controlling: How to maximize and demonstrate the value creation through communication. Berlin, Germany: German Public Relations Association (DPRG). Available athttp://www.quadriga.eu/_files/downloads/2011-11-16_position-paper_com-controlling.pdf

Jeffrey, A. (2015). How to measure social media: Linking PR activities to target audience effects. The Measurement Standard, January 10. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/2015/01/measure-social-media-choosing-tools-benchmarking

Likely, F. (2012). Principles for the use of return on investment (ROI), Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) financial metrics in a public relations/communication (PR/C) department. Paper presented to the 15th International Public Relations Research Conference, 8–10 March, Miami, FL. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/15th-IPRRC-Proceedings1.pdf

Likely, F., Rockland, D., & Weiner, M. (2006). Perspectives on the ROI of media relations publicity efforts. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/research_single/perspectives_on_the_roi/

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Using research to measure the effectiveness of PR programs. Quirk’s Marketing Research. Retrieved from http://www.quirks.com/articles/a1997/19970204.aspx

Lindenmann, W. (1997). Guidelines and standards for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. PR Pundit. Available at http://prpundit.com/pdf/prTools/MeasuringandEvaluatingPREffectiveness.pdf

Lindenmann, W. (2001). Research doesn’t have to put you in the poorhouse. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/research-savings

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainsville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf (Original work published 1997)

Macnamara, J. (2014). Breaking the PR measurement and evaluation deadlock: A new approach and model. Paper presented to the AMEC Summit on Measurement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Available at http://amecorg.com/downloads/amsterdam2014/Breaking-the-PR-Measurement-Deadlock-A-New-Approach-and-Model-Jim-Macnamara.pdf

McCorkindale, T., DiStaso, M. (2014). The state of social media research: Where are we now, where we were and what it means for public relations. Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 1(1), 1–17. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/state-social-media-research-now-means-public-relations

Sinickas, A. (2003). Focus on behaviour change to prove ROI. Strategic Communication Management, 7(6), 12–13. Available at http://www.sinicom.com/Sub%20Pages/pubs/articles/article58.pdf

Skelley, L., & Ziviani, M. (2012). Measuring PR performance across borders: How a global programme works. In PR Professionals Definitive Guide to Measurement, Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication, London, UK. Available at http://prguidetomeasurement.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Chapter-5-Laura-Skelley-Michael-Ziviani.pdf

Smith, B. (2008). Representing PR in the marketing mix: A study on public relations variables in marketing mix modelling. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/BG_SmithKetchum.pdf

Solis, B. (2010). ROI: How to measure return on investment in social media. @Brian Solis, 22 February. Available at http://www.briansolis.com/2010/02/roi-how-to-measure-return-on-investment-in-social-media

DPRG/ICV framework for communication controlling. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/positions/framework.html

European Commission. (2015, July). Toolkit for the evaluation of the communication activities. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/communication/about/evaluation/index_en.htm

Fairchild, M. (2001). The IPR toolkit: Planning, research and evaluation for public relations success (2nd ed.). London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

Fairchild, F., & O’Conner, N. (1999). The public relations research and evaluation toolkit: How to measure the effectiveness of PR. London, UK: Institute of Public Relations (now CIPR).

GCS (Government Communication Service). (2015). Evaluation Framework. Cabinet Office, Whitehall, London, UK. Available at https://gcs.civilservice.gov.uk/guidance/evaluation/tools-and-resources

IPRA (International Public Relations Association). (1994). Public relations evaluation: Professional accountability, Gold Paper No. 11, November. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

Lindenman, W. (1997). Guidelines for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

Lindenmann, W. (1997/2003). Guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of PR programs and activities. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2002_MeasuringPrograms.pdf . (Revised version of original work 1997)

Lindenmann, W. (2006). Public Relations Research for Planning and Evaluation. Resource booklet. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2006_Planning_Eval.pdf

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Principles on best practice in research, measurement, and evaluation in public relations. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6726

Public Relations Institute of Australia. (2014). Media and social media content analysis guidelines. Available at http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/6727

Public Relations Society of America. (2014). Measurement resources. Available at http://www.prsa.org/intelligence/businesscase/measurementresources

Stacks, D., & Bowen, S. (Eds.). (2013). Dictionary of public relations measurement and research. Gainesville FL: Institute for Public Relations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/dictionary-of-public-relations-measurement-and-research/ 

RESEARCH REPORTS

Macnamara, J. (2014). The development of international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations and corporate communication: A review. Sydney, NSW: Australian Centre for Public Communication, University of Technology Sydney. Available at https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/acpc-pr-measurement-and-evaluation-review.pdf

Wright, D., Gaunt, R., Leggetter, B., Daniels, M., & Zerfass, A. (2009). Global survey of communications measurement 2009 – final report. London, UK: Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication. Available at http://amecorg.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Global-Survey-Communications_Measurement-20091.pdf

Zerfass, A., Verčič, D., Verhoeven, P., Moreno, A., & Tench, R. (2015). European communication monitor 2015. Brussels, Belgium: European Association for Communication Directors (EACD) and European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) in association with Helios Media, Berlin. Available at http://www.zerfass.de/ECM-WEBSITE/media/ECM2015-Results-ChartVersion.pdf

OTHER RESOURCES FOR PR AND COMMUNICATION EVALUATION

Geddes, D., Grunig, J., Likely, F., Lindenmann, W., Macleod, S., Macnamara, J. Mathes, R., Paine, K., Rockland, D., Stacks, D., & Watson, T. (2010). Thought leaders in PR measurement. Available at http://www.communicationcontrolling.de/en/resources/interviews/thought-leaders.html 

Institute for Public Relations Measurement Commission. (2015). Research and conversations. Available at http://www.instituteforpr.org/center/ipr-measurement-center/

Melcrum. (2015). Measurement and evaluation. Web site resources for internal communication. Available at https://www.melcrum.com/internal-communication-measurement-evaluation

Paine Publishing. (n.d.). K. Paine (Publisher). Available at http://painepublishing.com/

Public Relations Society of America and American Statistical Association. (2011). Best Practices Guide for Use of Statistics in Public Relations. Available at http://amecorg.com/white-papers-and-reports/

Salience Insight and News International. (n.d.). B. Paarlberg (Ed.), The Measurement Standard. Available at http://www.themeasurementstandard.com/

EVALUATION LITERATURE IN OTHER DISCIPLINES

Behavioural Economics / Behavioural Insights:

Behavioural Insights. (2015). [Web site]. London, UK. Available at http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk

 Psychology Today. (2015). [Web site]. Available at https://www.psychologytoday.com/topics/behavioral-economics

Samson, A., (Ed.). (2014). The behavioral economics guide 2014. Available at http://www.behavioraleconomics.com/BEGuide2014.pdf

Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Health Communication / Health Promotion:

Bauman, A., & Nutbeam, D. (2014). Evaluation in a nutshell: A practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

Hornik, R. (Ed.). (2002). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kreps, G. (2014). Evaluating health communication programs to enhance health care and health promotion. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 19(12), 1449–1459.

O’Connor-Fleming, M., Parker, E., Higgins, H., & Gould, T. (2006). A framework for evaluating health promotion programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 17(1), 61–66. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/9440/1/9440.pdf

Rice, R., & Atkin, C. (Eds.). (2013). Public communication campaigns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shiavo, R. (2014). Planning, implementing, and evaluating a health communication intervention. In Health communication: From theory to practice (2nd ed., Part 3). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Program Theory and Theory of Change:

Anderson, A. (2005). The community builder’s approach to theory of change: A practical guide to theory and development. New York, NY: The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change.

Chen, H. (1990). Theory Driven Evaluations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Clark, H., & Taplin, D. (2012). Theory of change basics: A primer on theory of change. New York, NY: Actknowledge.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Lipsey, M., & Freeman, H. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wholey, J. (1987). Evaluability assessment: Developing program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 33, 77–92.

Program Evaluation: (See also ‘Program Logic Models’)

Barrett, F. (2013). Program evaluation: A step-by-step guide. Urbana, IL: Sunnycrest.

Boulmetis, J., & Dutwin, P. (2005). The ABCs of evaluation: Timeless techniques for program and project managers. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Owen, J. (2006). Program evaluation: Forms and approaches (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rossi, P., Freeman, H., & Lipsey, M. (2004). Evaluation. A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, C. (1972). Evaluative research: Methods of assessing program effectiveness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wholey, J. (1983). Evaluation and effective public management. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Wholey J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Yarbrough, B., Lyn, M., Shulha, H., Rodney K., & Caruthers, A. (2011). The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation Users (3rd ed.). Sage.

Program Logic Models:

Bennett, C. (1976). Analyzing impacts of extension programs, ESC-575.Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture Extension Service.

Fournier, D. (1995). Establishing evaluation conclusions: A distinction between general and working logic. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 68, 15–32.

Henert, E., & Taylor-Power, E. (2008). Developing a logic model: Teaching and training guide. Available at http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/pdf/lmguidecomplete.pdf

Julian, D. (1997). The utilization of the logic model as a system level planning and evaluation device. Evaluation and Program Planning, 20(3), 251–257.

Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: Author. Available at http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/pdf/eval-guides/logic-model-development-guide.pdf

Knowlton, L. & Phillips, C. (2013). The logic model guidebook: Better strategies for great results (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLaughlin, J., & Jordan, J. (1999). Logic models: a tool for telling your program’s performance story. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 65–72.

Milstein, B., & Chapel, T. (2014). Developing a logic model or theory of change. Community Tool Box.

Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Work Group for Community Health and Development. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/logic-model-development/main

PCI (Practical Concepts, Inc.) (1979). The logical framework. A manager’s guide to a scientific approach to design & evaluation. Washington, DC. Available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnabn963.pdf

Rush, B., & Ogbourne A. (1991). Program logic models: Expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 6(2), 95–106.

Performance Management:

Better Evaluation. (2015). An international collaboration to improve evaluation practice. Website resources. Available at http://betterevaluation.org/

Boardman, E., Greenberg, D., Vining, A., & Weimer, D. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis concepts and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2014). How CSIRO ensures it delivers impact. Sydney, NSW: Author. Available at http://www.csiro.au/en/About/Strategy-structure/Our-impact-framework

International Integrated Reporting Council. (2013). International Integrated Reporting Framework. London, UK. Available at http://www.theiirc.org/international-ir-framework

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992, January-February). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71–79.

Layard, R., & Glaister, S. (1994). Cost-benefit analysis (2nd ed). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Levin, H., & McEwan, P. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love, A. (1991). Internal evaluation: Building organizations from within. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mishan, E., & Quah, E. (2007). Cost-benefit analysis (5th ed.). Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Walsh, C. (2008). Key management ratios (4th ed.). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.

Marketing:

Content Marketing Framework: Measurement. (n.d.). Content Marketing Institute. Available at http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/measurement/

Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P., & Reibstein, D. (2010). Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Nudge Marketing:

See ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Psychology/Social Psychology:

McGuire, W. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 136-314). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

McGuire, W. J. (2001). Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. In R. Rice & C. Atkin (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (3rd ed., pp. 22–48). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

See also ‘Engagement’ and ‘Behavioural Economics/Insights’

Engagement:

Macey, W., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.

Meyer, J., & Smith, C. (2000). HRM practices and organisational commitment: A test of a mediation model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Services, 17, 319–331.

 Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. Available http://www.psychology.uh.edu/faculty/Eisenberger/files/04_Affective_Commitment_to_the_Organization.pdf

General Evaluation Resources:

American Evaluation Society – www.eval.org

Australasian Evaluation Society – www.aes.asn.au

Harvard Family Research Project, The Evaluation Exchange – www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/eval.html

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. In Research methods knowledge base. Available at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/evaluation.php 

United Kingdom Evaluation Society – http://www.evaluation.org.uk/

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